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ፓለቲካ ማለት እንታይ ማለት ኢዩ?

ፖለቲካ ማለት፡-

  1.  መንግስቲ (government)፡ ኣርቀቕቲ ሕጊ ዝኾኑ ትካላት፡ ፖለቲካዊ ሰልፍታትን ውልቀ ዜጋታትን፣ ህዝብን ሃገርን ብኸመይ ይመሓደሩ ንዝብል ሕቶ ንምምላስ ጽልዋታቶም ንኸሕድሩ ዝገብርዎም ንጥፈታት እንተላይ ንስልጣን ዝግበሩ ውድድራት ዘጠቓልል መስርሕ ኢዩ።
  2. ውልቃዊ ድሌታትን ባህግታትን ምስ ሓባራዊ ረብሓታት ብምትዕራቕ ህዝባዊ ኣገልግሎታት ንምብርካት ዝካየድ መስርሕ ኢዩ። (ሕግን ስርዓትን ምኽባር፡ ትሕተ-ቅርጻ ምውዳድ፡ ትምህርቲ፡ ሕክምና፡ ካልኦት ህዝባዊ ኣገልግሎታት፡  ….ወዘተ ምብርካት)
  3. ኣብ መንጎ ልዑላውያን ሃገራት፡ ከምኡ’ውን ኣብ መንጎ ደርብታት ዝህሉ ዝምድናታትን ረብሓታትን ዝውስን መስርሕ ኢዩ።

 

ካብ’ዚ ትርጉም ናይ ፓለቲካ እንተደኣ ተበጊስና፡ ፖለቲካ ማለት ከምቲ ገለ ወገናት ዝገልጽዎ፡ ክዝሕለካ ብኢድካ ክውዕየካ ብማንካ ማለት ከምዘይኮነ ብቐሊሉ ክንርዳእ ንኽእል ኢና። ንፓለቲካ ክሳብ ክንድ’ዚ ኣቃሊልካ ምግላጹን ዘይትርጉሙ ምሃብን ኣብ ልዕሊ ኣህዛብን መንግስታትን ዓለም ዘለካ ክቱር ንዕቐት ጥራሕ ኢዩ ዘንጸባርቕ። እንተውሓደ’ኳ፡ ነተን ብቅዋም ዝግዛእ ፖለቲካ ዘለወን ዲሞክራስያውያን ሃገራት ፍልይ ዝበለ ጠመተ ምግባር ይግባእ ነይሩ። ንመለኽትን ዲሞክራስያውያን ሃገራትን ኣብ ሓደ መጉእ ኣእቲኻ ምውቃጥ ፍትሓዊ ኣይኮነን።

ፖለቲካ ማለት “ክዝሕለካ ብኢድካ ክውዕየካ ብማንካ” ዝብል ትርጉም ዝህብዎ እምበኣር፡ እቶም ንፖለቲካ ከም ስልቲ ወይ ድማ ከም ምትዕጽጻፍ ወይ ከም ሓሶት (ቦሎቲኮነ) ጥራሕ ዝገልጽዎን ዝርድእዎን ሸነኻት ኢዮም። በዚ ኣገላልጻ’ዚ፡ ንስትራተጂካዊ፡ መትከላውን ሞራላውን ክብርታት ናይ ፖለቲካ ቀንጢጦም፡  ኣገባቡ ብዘየገድስ ረብሓኻ ንምርግጋጽ ዝኾነ ይኹን እትወስዶ ስጉምቲ  ቅቡል ኢዩ ወይ ቅኑዕ ኢዩ ናብ ዝብል ግጉይ መደምደታ ክንበጽሕ ኢዮም ዝምህሩና። ንኣብነት፡ ሳዳም ሑሴን ንህዝቢ ብጃምላ ዘጥፍእ ኣጽዋር ኣለዎ ብዝብል ምስምስ፡ ኣመሪካ ኣብ ልዕሊ ዒራቕ ዝገበረቶ ወራር ፣ ከም በዓል ሮበርት ሙጋበ፡ ሙሰቨኒ፡ ኢሳያስ ኣፍወርቂ፡ ያሕያ ጃምህ፡  …ወዘተ፡  ዝኣመሰሉ መለኽቲ ዕድመ ስልጣኖም ንምንዋሕ ዝገብርዎ ናይ ቅዋም ምቅይያራትን “ከፋፊልካ ግዛእ” ዝብል ፖሊሲታት ወይ ፓለቲካ ቅኑዕ ኢዩ ናብ ዝብል ሓደገኛ መደምደምታ ኢዩ ዘብጽሓና። ፋሽስታዊ ስርዓታት ሂትለርን ሞሶሊንን ንልዕልነት ናይ ሃገሮምን ዓሌቶምን ቀዳምነት ብምሃብ ኣብ ልዕሊ ካልኦት ኣህዛብን ሃገራትን ዝፈጸምዎ  ወራራትን ግፍዕታትን እውን ምኹኑይ ዝገብር ኣተሓሳስባ ኢዩ።

ማክያቨሊ እውን ሓደ ካብ’ቶም ኣገባብ ብዘየገድስ እቲ ዝድለ ስልጣን ምጭባጥ’ዩ ዝብል ዝነበረ ኢዩ። ህዝባዊ ግንባር ምስ ህዝባዊ ወያነ ሓርነት ትግራይ ተመሓዝያ ብሰማንያታት ኣብ ልዕሊ  ሃገራዊ ሓይሊ (ተሓኤ) መጥቃዕቲ ዝፈነወት ካብ’ዚ ኣረዳድኣ’ዚ ተበጊሳ ኢያ። ሎሚ ድማ፡ ንኻልኦት ወያነ’ዶ ናይ ወያነ ልኡኻት እናበለ ክትከስስ ትስማዕ። ነዚ  ከም’ዚ ዝኣመሰለ ሓላፍነት ዘይብሉ “ምትዕጽጻፍ”፡  ፖለቲካ ማለት ክዝሕለካ ብኢድካ፡ ክውዕየካ ብማንካ ስለዝኾነ ቅኑዕ ኢዩ ኢልካ ምምጓስ ናይ ጥዕና ኣይኮነን።

ብኣገላልጻ ማክያቨሊ፡ እቲ ብቑዕ ዝብሃል መራሒ “ተዓጻጻፊ ባህርያት” ክህልዎ ኣለዎ ዝብል ኢዩ። እቲ ንመሪሕነት ብቑዕ ዝኾነ ንጠባያቱ/ታ ካብ ጽቡቕ ናብ ክፉእ እንደገና ከኣ ካብ ክፉእ ናብ ጽቡቕ ናይ ምቕያር ባህርያት ወይ ዓቕሚ ዘለዎ/ዋ ኢዩ/ኢያ ይብል።

Machiavelli's sense of what it is to be a person of virtù can thus be summarized by his recommendation that the prince above all else must acquire a “flexible disposition.” That ruler is best suited for office, on Machiavelli's account, who is capable of varying her/his conduct from good to evil and back again “as fortune and circumstances dictate” (Machiavelli 1965, 66).

ብስም ምትዕጽጻፍ ወይ ብስም ስልቲ፡ ንሞራላዊ ክብርታት ዘይሕሉ ስጉምቲ ባርኾት ምሃብ (justify ምግባር)፡ ንቅዱስን ዘይቅዱስን ዕላማታት ደዋዊስካ ምቕራብን፡ ንህዝቢ ምድንጋር እንተዘይኮይኑ ካልእ ፋይዳ የብሉን።

 

ሻድሻይ ክፋል

8ይ ስሩዕ ኣኼባ ማእክላይ ባይቶ ሰልፊ ዲሞክራሲ ህዝቢ ኤርትራ እናተኻየደ ከሎ፡ ብፈጻሚት ሽማግለ ዝቐረበ ንድፊ ውሳኔ፡ ኣብ መስከረም ተጠቂዑ ርኢናዮ። እቲ ከምዚ ዝገበረ ኣካል፡ ንሓድነት ሰልፊ ክሕሉ፡ ንምዕባለ ሰልፊ ንቕድሚት ምእንቲ ክውንጨፍ’ዩ ገይርዎ ዝብል እምነት የብለይን። ንድፊ ፈጻሚት ሽማግለ ውሳኔ ማእከላይ ባይቶ ኣምሲልካ፡ ኣብ መስከረም ምጥቅዑ ጥቕሙ እንታይ ምዃኑ ባዕሉ እቲ ዝጠቀዖ’ዩ ዝፈልጦ። ሰልፊ ዲሞክራሲ ህዝቢ ኤርትራ ግን፡ ብኸምዚ ዝመስል ሕሱር ስራሕ ጉዕዝኡ ክዕንቀፍ ኣይኮነን።

ብውድባዊ መስኖታት ኣቢልካ ርእይቶኻ፡ ለበዋኻ፡ ተቓውሞኻ ምግላጽ፡ ኣብ ሰልፊ ዲሞክራሲ ህዝቢ ኤርትራ ፍቑድ’ዩ። ካብ ውድባዊ መስኖታት ወጺእካ፡ ኣብ ወብሳይታት ክትራገም ምውዓልን ምስጢራት ሰልፊ ምዝራውን ግን ሃናጺ ኣበርክቶ የብሉን። እቶም ከምዚ ዝገብሩ ዘለው ኣካላት ካብ ኣዕናዊ ምንቅስቓስ ወጺኦም ኣብ ውሽጢ ውድባዊ መድረኽ ሃናጺ ግደ ክጻወቱ’የ ዝመኽሮም።

እቲ ሓቂ ንምድፋን ምስሊ ሰልፊ ዲሞክራሲ ህዝቢ ኤርትራን መራሕቱን ንምድዋንን ኣብ ወብ ሳይታት፡ በቶም ኣባላት ሰልፊ ምዃኖም እናገለጹ ዝጽሕፉ ዘለው ዝቐርብ ዘሎ ጉዳያት፡ በብሓደ ብዝርዝር ክትምልሰሉ ምፍታን ኣዝዩ ኣድካሚ ስራሕ’ዩ። እቲ ብወገነይ ዝመረጽክዎ ኣገባብ፡ ነቲ ኣዳናጋሪ ዝመሰለኒ ኣምራት መብርሂ ምሃብን ምስኡ ኣጐዛጒዘ ድማ ንኣምር ዲሞክራሲን ዲሞክራስያዊ ኣሰራርሓን ብዓቕመይ ከም ትምህርቲ ምቕራብን እዩ።

ሓቂ ንምድፋን ካብ ዝቐረቡ ሓሳባት፡ ምብራቓዊ ኣተሓሳስባ ዘለዎም ኣካላት ንሰልፊ ዲሞክራሲ ህዝቢ ኤርትራ ይመርሕዎ ከምዘለው ዘመልክት፡ ተሓንጊርና ኣስመራ ክንኣቱ ትጽቢት ከምዝነበረና ትጽቢትና ምስ ማህመነ ግን ሓሪቕና ምስ ገሊኦም ከም እተባኣስና፡ ኣብ ሰልፊ ዲሞክራሲ ህዝቢ ኤርትራ ምልክነት ነጊሱ ምህላው፡ ቀንዲ ጸገም ሰልፍና ፈራዲ ኣካል ስለ ዘየለ ምዃኑ ወዘተ. ዝብል እዩ። ካብኡ ሓሊፉ ውን ኣብ ውልቃዊ ጉዳያት ብምእታው ካብ ሚንስተር ዝነበረ ዘመዶም ዝጽበይዎ ዝነበሩ ሓላፋታት ብዘይምርካቦም ኮርዮም ዝጸንሑ ብዝብል ኣዝዩ ሕሱር ነውራም ቃላት ቀሪቡ።

ምብራቓዊ ኣተሓሳስባ ዘለዎም ኣካላት

- ኣብ ውሽጢ ሰልፊ ዲሞክራሲ ህዝቢ ኤርትራ ዝኾነ ይኹን ሓሳብ ሒዝካ ክትቃለስ ፍቑድ እዩ። ምብራቓዊ ኣተሓሳስባ ሒዙ ክቃለስ ዝደሊ ክቃለስ ይኽእል እዩ። ምዕራባዊ ኣተሓሳስባ ሒዙ ክቃለስ ዝደሊ ውን ክቃለስ ይኽእል እዩ። ዝኾነ ይኹን ኣተሓሳስባ ሒዝካ ኣብ ሰልፊ ዲሞክራሲ ህዝቢ ኤርትራ ክትቃለስ ክትፍትን ከለኻ ግን ንዝበዝሑ ኣባላት ሰልፊ ዲሞክራሲ ህዝቢ ኤርትራ ኣዕጊብካ ኢኻ ንሓሳባትካ ከተዓውቶ እትኽእል። ንዝበዝሑ ኣባላት ሰልፊ ምዕጋቦም ስኢንካ፡ ካብ መስኖታት ውድብ ወጺእካ ኣብ ወብሳይታት ምብራቓዊ ኣተሓሳስባ ዘለዎም ዓብሊሎም እናበልካ ምርጋም ግን ኣብ ዲሞክራስያዊ መድረኽ ከም እተሰዓርካ’ዩ ዘመልክት።

- ዲሞክራስያዊመድረኽሰልፊዲሞክራሲህዝቢኤርትራነቶምዝጸዓሩነቶምብስነስርዓትእተቓለሱብልጫዝህብ።ይኹንእምበር፡ሎሚተሳዒሩድምጺብዙሓትዘይረኸበ፡ብኣዕጋቢኣገባብእንተተቓሊሱንእንተጽዒሩንጽባሕክስዕርንድምጺብዙሓትክረክብንዘኽእሎማዕጾይኸፍተሉእዩ።ነዚኣገባብብስነስርዓትክሕዞድሉውዘይኮነግን፡ካብዲሞክራስያዊመስርሕክሃድምዘለዎ።ካብዲሞክራስያዊመስርሕሃዲሙኣብወብሳይታትምስሓከለከኣ፡ክራገምእምበርኣብውሽጢሰልፊዲሞክራሲህዝቢኤርትራካልእኣድማዕንሃናጽንኣበርክቶክህልዎኣይክእልንእዩ።

- ምብራቓዊ ኣተሓሳስባ ዘለዎም ኣካላት ዝብል ኣብ ወብ ሳይታት እንሰምዖ ዘለና ዘረባ እምበኣር፡  ሓቂ ንምግላጽ ዘይኮነ ሓቂ ንምድፋን ዝመጽእ ዘሎ እዩ። እቶም ምብራቓዊ ኣተሓሳስባ ዘለዎም ብሓይሊ ዘይኮነ ብድምጺ ብዙሓት ተደጊፎም ርእይቶኦም ከዓውቱ ዝሓስቡ እንተኾይኖም ከኣ፡ ምልካውያን ዘይኮነስ ዲሞክራስያውያን’ና ንብሎም ። ድምጽኻ ኣብ ውሑዳት ኮይኑ፡ ንድምጺ ብዙሓት ብቓል ይኹን ብግብሪ ከትዕምጽ ምፍታን ግን ጠባይ ዲክታቶራውያን እዩ። ሎሚ ሓይሊ ስለ ዘይብልካ ኣብ ወብ ሳይታት ሓኪልካ ተጸልም ኣለኻ፡ ሓይሊ እንተትረክብ ግን እንታይ ምገበርካ ክግመት ዝኽእል እዩ።

ሓንጋርን ተሓንጋርን

-ተሓንጊርና ኣስመራ ክንኣቱ ትጽቢት እንተነይሩና እንቛዕ ወዮ ትጽቢትና ፈሽለ። ስልጣን ኣብ ኢድ ህዝቢ ኤርትራ ክኣቱ እናተቓለስና ከለና፡ ተረዲኡና ድዩ ከይተረደኣና ተሓንጊርና ኣብ ኣስመራ እንተንኣቱ ንህዝቢ ኤርትራ ተወሳኺ መከራ’ዩ ምኾነ። ወዮም ሓንገርትና ብኢደወነኖም ኣብ ኣስመራ ኣትዮም ስልጣን ክጭብጡ እንተኾይኑ ሕልሞም ከኣ ንሶም ውን እንቛዕ ኣይሰለጦም።

-እቲ ኣጸላሚ ጸሓፋይ ግን ኣብ’ቲ ሓንጋሪ እምነት ስለ ዘለዎ ይመስለኒ፡ ነቶም ተሓንገርቲ ጥራይ’ዩ ከሲሱ። ብዛዕባ እቲ ሓንጋራይ ብዙሕ ክዛረብ ኣይደለየን። ወዮ ኣጸላሚ፡ እቲ ሓንጋራይ ብኢደ ወነኑ ስልጣን ኣብ ምሓዝ ዓቕምን ተሞክሮን ከምዘለዎ’ዩ ዝኣምን። ስለዚ እቶም ዝኸሶም ዘሎ ተሓንገርቲ ኮርዮም ካብ ዝባን ሓንጋራይ ምስ ወረዱ፡ ንዝባን ሓንጋራይ ብሒቱ ክሕዞ  ዝመረጸ’ዩ ዝመስል። እቲ ንድምጺ ብዙሓት ዝንዕቕ ቃንኡ ነዚ’ዩ ዘመልክት። ንመስርሕ ዲሞክራሲ እናነዓቕካ፡ ንውልቀሰብ ክንድዚ ዝኸውን ክብርን እምነትን ምሃብ ንመላእ ሰልፍን ትካላቱን ኣብ ዝባን ሓደ ውልቀሰብ ዘቐምጥ ኣረኣእያ ምቕራብ ዘገርም እዩ።

-ሰልፊ ዲሞክራሲ ህዝቢ ኤርትራ፡ ነቲ ኣብ ሓይልን ዓመጽን ዝምርኮስ ዝሓለፈ ተሞክሮና ብዝግባእ ገምጊሙ፡ ንዘይዓመጻዊ ኣገባብ ዝመረጸ ሰልፊ እዩ። ብሓይሊ ብረት ኣቢልካ ንድምጺ ብዙሓት ዓሚጽካ ስልጣን ምሓዝ ኣይድግፍን እዩ። ኣንጻር ምልካውያን እንገብሮ ዘለና ቃልሲ ምስ ተዓወተ ድማ፡ ስልጣን ኣብ ኢድ ጀነራላት ዘይኮነስ፡ ኣብ ኢድ ህዝቢ ኤርትራ ክኸውን’ዩ ቃልስና። ዝበዝሕ ኣካል ህዝብና ድምጹ ዝሃቦ ሰልፊ ድማ’ዩ፡ ክመርሓና መሰል ዝህልዎ። ነዚ ዕላማና እዚ ኣጸቢቑ ዝፈልጥ ኣካል ሓንገርትን ተሓንገርትን ዝብል ሕሱር ሞጐት ከቕርብ ከሎ ግን፡ ንዓና ዘይኮነስ ንገዛእ ነብሱ’ዩ ዘዋርድ ዘሎ።

ቀንዲ ጸገምና ፈራዲ ኣካል ዘይምህላው እዩ

-ንህዝብናንመንእሰያትንቅኑዕእንተመሃርናዮምጠቕሚዘለዎ።ክትተሃላልኽክትብልዘየለምቕራብነውሪእዩ።ኣብዓለምናኣብውሽጣቤትፍርዲዘለዎሰልፊሰሚዐኣይፈልጥን።ከምኡእንተኾይኑድማኣብሓደሃገር 10 ሰልፍታትእንተድኣረኺብና 10 ቤትፍርድታትእተንሰልፍታትክንርኢኣለናማለትእዩ።ሓጋጊፈጻሚፈራዲዝብልኣምራትኣብኣሰራርዓመንግስቲንረኽቦኢና።ኣብኣሰራርዓሰልፍታትግንብምልኣትክንረኽቦኣይንኽእልንኢና።ምኽንያቱሰልፊንውሱንዕላማከዐውትብፍቓዶምእተኣኽኸቡሰባትኣጠቓሊሉነቲዕላማዘረጋግጽቅርጺኣሰራርሕንሕግታትንዘቐምጥፖለቲካዊኣካልእዩ።ካብኣምርሃገርንመንግስትንኣዝዩእተፈልየእዩ።ኣብሓርነታዊቃልስናእተንውድባትቤትፍርድታትነይርወን፡እዚግንኣብናጻቦታታትዘምሓድርኦህዝቢስለዝነበረንከምመንግስቲክሰርሓይግደዳ ብምንባረን እዩ።

ኣምር ዲሞክራስያዊ ማእከልነት

-ዲሞክራስያዊ ሰልፊ ንምትሕስሳብ ዝምችእ ቅርጺ ክህልዎ ኣገዳሲ እዩ። ወዮ ኣጸላሚ ጸሓፋይ ንዲሞክራስያዊ ማእከልነት፡ ምብራቓዊ ኣተሓሳስባ እናበለ ብጽልኢ ብዘንባዕ ኣገባብ ከቕርቦ ከሎ ተዓዚብና ኢና። ቅኑዕ ሓሳባት፡ ካብ ምብራቕ ይምጻእ ካብ ምዕራብ ክንቅበሎ’ዩ ዝግብኣና። እቲ ግዝኣተ ሕጊ ዝብል ኣምርን ዲሞክራስያዊ ማእከልነትን ከኣ ብደቂቕ እንተመርሚርናዮ ብዙሕ ፍልልይ ዘለዎ ኣይኮነን። ዲሞክራስያዊ ማእከልነት ግን ዝያዳ ኣብ ኣሰራርሓ ዘተኮረ እዩ። ሓደ ዲሞክራስያዊ ሰልፊ ቅርጺ ኣሰራርሕኡ ንዲሞክራስያዊ ማእክልነት ዘዕግብ ክኸውን ኣዝዩ ኣገዳሲ እዩ። ከምኡ ዝመስል ቅርጺ ኣሰራርሓ’ዩ ንተሓታትነት ንዕዉት ኣፈጻጽማ ስራሕን ዝምችእ። ኣብ ምብራቕ ኣብ ተግባራዊ ኣፈጻጽማ እቲ ኣምር ፍሽለት እንተተረኽበ ከኣ፡ እቲ ፍሽለት ነቶም ተግበርቱ እምበር ነቲ ኣምር ከነሰክሞ ኣይግባእን።

-ዲሞክራስያዊ ማእከልነት፡ ውሳኔታት ብዲሞክራስያዊ ኣገባብ ብድምጺ ብዙሓት ክትውስን’ዩ ዘፍቅድ። ድሕሪ ምውሳንካ ከኣ ብውሳኔኻ ክትቅየድ ስለ ዘለካ’ዩ ማእከልነት ዝመጽእ። ስለዚ እቲ ዲሞክራሲ ነቲ ማእከልነት፡ እቲ ማእከልነት ድማ ነቲ ዲሞክራሲ’ዩ ክድግፍ ዘለዎ።  ነዚ መስርሕ’ዚ ብክለሳሓሳብን ግብርን ብቕኑዕ ኣገባብ ዝኽተሎ ሰልፊ እንተረኺብና፡ እቲ ሰልፊ ዲሞክራስያዊ ሰልፊ እዩ።

-እቲ ዲሞክራሲ ክምእከል እንተዘይኪኢሉ ግን ዕንወት’ዩ ዝርከብ። ማለት እተወሰነ ዘይፍጸም፡ እተመርጸ መሪሕነት ምእዙዙነት ዘይረክብ፡ ድምጺ ብዙሓት ዘይክበር እንተኾይኑ ዓወት ዘይኮነ ዕንወት’ዩ ዝርከብ።

-እቲ ማእክልነት ካብ ዲሞክራስያዊ መድረኽ ወጺኡ፡ ተመሊሱ ናብ ዲሞክራስያዊ መድረኽ ዝመጸሉን ምትሕስሳብ ዝፍጸመሉን ኣገባብ እንተቦዂሩ ውን ዕንወት’ዩ ዝርከብ። ውሳኔታት በብእዋኑ ብኣኼባታት ክኽለሱ እንተዘይክእሎም፡ መሪሕነት እተዋህቦ ውሱን ሓላፍነት ኣብ ግዜኡ ኣረኪቡ ንምትሕስሳብ ፍቓደኛ እንተዘይኮይኑ ዕንወት’ዩ ዝርከብ።

- ስለዚ እቲ ምስጢር ዓወት፡ ንዲሞክራስን ንማእከልነትን ብሚዛን ምሓዝ እዩ። ዝኾነ ዲምክራስያዊ ሰልፊ ነዚ ኣምር’ዚ ብሚዛን ዝሕዝ ቅርጺ እንተዘይኣማዕቢሉ ውድቀቱ ዘይተርፍ እዩ። ማእከልነት እንተተጋኒኑ፡ ውሳኔታት ኣብ ውሱን ግዜ በብእዋኑ ክኽለሱ እንተዘይክኢሎም፡ መሪሕነት ካብ እትዋህቦ ድሩት ግዜኡ ኣሕሊፉ ከምድልየቱ ብዘይ ገደብ እንተመሪሑ ምልክነት ይነግስ። ዲሞክርስያውነት ቀይዲ እንተስኢኑ፡ እተወሰኑ ክፍጸሙ እንተዘይክኢሎም፡ እተመርጹ መራሕቲ ክመርሑ ኣብ ዘይክእልሉ ኩነታት እንተበጺሖም ከኣ ምብትታን’ዩ ዝመጽእ። ሓድነት እቲ ሰልፊ ይፈርስ ውድቀት ከኣ ዘይተርፍ ይኸውን።

- ነዚ ከምዚ ዝመስል ትሕዝቶ ዘለዎ ኣምር ዲሞክራስያዊ ማእከልነት፡ ከም ወረቐት ዝቐዳድዶን ዘይትርጉሙን ዘይትሕዝትኡን ዘልብሶ ኣካል ምርኣይና ብሓቂ’ዩ ገሪሙና። ኣብ ዝደልዮ ዕላማ ክበጽሕ ምስሊ ሰልፊ ዲሞክራስን መሪሕነቱን ክድውን እተበገሰ ጸሓፋይ፡ ንፍሉጥ ፖለቲካዊ ኣምራት ከምድላዩ ጠማዚዙ ከቕርቦም ፍጹም ዘይምሕፋሩ ይገርመኒ እዩ።

-ክቕጽል እዩ-

ወዲ ሰብ ብስስዕቲ፥ በለጽን ቅንእን ክጽለው ንቡር እዩ። ካብዚ ባህሪ እዚ ንምልቓቕ ከኣ ኣብ ውሽጡ ናይ ለውጢ ቃልሲ ከካይድ ይግበኦ። እንተዘይኮይኑ ኣብ ምዕብልና ናይ ሓደ ሕብረተሰብ ሃሳይ ግደ ከም ዝጻወት ዘጠራጥር ኣይኮነን። ሎሚ ዓለምና ኣብ ናይ ምትሕብባር፥ ምክብባርን ሓቢርካ ምንባርን ጐደና እትጎዓዘሉ ዘላ ህሞት፡ ንዓይ ጥራይ ይጥዓመኒ ኢልካ ሽግር ናይ ካልእ ከምዘይሽግርካ ምርኣይ ሓደ ካብቲ ኣቐዲሙ ተጠቒሱ ዘሎ ባህሪ እዩ።

ቅዱሳት መጻሕፍቲ ከም ዝገልጾ ተፋቐሩ፥ ተሳነዩ፥ ተሓባበሩ፥ ንሽጉር ርድኡ እዩ ዝብል። እዚ ናይ ኩሉ ሃይማኖታት እምንቶ ምዃኑ ኣይንስሕቶን ንኸውን። ሃይማኖት ዝፈላልን ዘባእስን እንተ ኾይኑ ግና መንፈሳዊ ኣይኮነን ማለት እዩ። ካብዚ ሃይማኖት ዝእዝዞ ቅኑዕ ተግባራት ወጺእና ክንንቀሳቐስ ከሎና፥ ኣብ ኩሉ ባህሪናን ጠባያትናን  ጽልዋ ክህልዎ  ናይ ግድን እዩ። ንኣብነት ኣይትቕተል፡ ኣይትሓሱ፡ ኣይትስረቐ፡ እናበለ ዘስተምህረና ሃይማኖታት ሸለል ኢልና ክንሕሱን ክንዘምትን ንርከብ ኣሎና።

ልብና ክፉእን ተንኮልን እናሓሰበ፡ ተመሊስና ኣመንቲ ሃይማኖት ክንመስል ንደሊ። እዚ  በለጻዊ ኣካይዳ ኣብ ፖለቲካ እውን ዓቢ ዓንቃፊ ግደ እዩ ዝጻወት። ናይ ገዛእ ርእስኻ ጌጋታት ንምሽፋንን ናትካ ሓሳብ ጥራሕ ቅኑዕ ምዃኑ ንምርኣይን ዘይተባህለን ዘይተገብረን ኣልዕል ኣቢልካ ምጽሓፍን ምምዳርን ነቲ ኣይትሓሱ ዝብል እዩ ዝጥሕስ።

ናይ ገዛእ ርእስኻ ኣጀንዳ ሒዝካ፥ ኣብ ልዕሊ ካለኦት ፖለቲካዊ ጽልዋ ንኸተሕድርን  ብዝኾነይኹን ዋጋ ከተእምንን ሒዅ ምባል ነገዛእ ርእሱ ናይ በለጽ መግለጺ እዩ። ነቲ ፖለቲካዊ መትከላትን ሕግጋቱን ዘንጊዒካ፥ ብናትካ ውልቃዊ  ዝምቡዕ ኣተሓሳስባን ኣተራጓጉማን ብናይ ሓጺር ዓላማ ወይ ጸቢብነት ዝተላዕጠጠ መርዛም መናፍሕ ምንዛሕ ከኣ እቲ ብናይ ኣነነት ዝተጠቕዐ ፍሹል ናይ ፖለቲከኛ ጻዕሪ እዩ።

ናይ ሓጺር ግዜ መኽሰብ ንምርካብን ሰልፊ ዲሞክራሲ ህዝቢ ኤርትራ ንምፍራስን ክግበር ዝጸንሐ ወስታታት እምበር ከምቲ ዝምደር ንምድንፋዕ ሰልፊ ከምዘይኮነ ርዱእ እዩ። ምኽንያቱ ኣብ ውሽጢ ሓደ ሰልፊ ኰይንካ ዝተፈለየ ርእይቶ ክህልወካ ንቡር ክነሱ፡ ዝተፈለየ ራኢ ሒዝካ  ምፍንጣሕ ነቲ ሰልፊ ዘርብሕ ኣይኮነን። ሕቡእ ውዳቤታትካ ሰሪዕካ፥ መን እንታይ ይገብር መዲብካ፥ ድሕሪ ኣዚ ኣነ ንሓድነት ሰልፊ እየ ብምባል እምበር ፈረ ዘለዎ ኣይኮነን። ብቐደሙ እውን ንውልቀ ሰብ ልዕሊ ፖለቲካዊ መደብ ዕዮ ምስራዕ እዩ ነቲ ጸገም ኣምጺእዎ። 

ልክዕ እዩ ዝተሰማማዕካሉ መትከልን፥ ዝሓንጸጽካዮ ቅዋምን ንጥቕምኻ ይኹን ጉጅለኣዊ ረብሓታት ኢልካ ልዕሊ ኩሉ ኣዕዚዝካ ምዝራብን ብኣኡ ምፍላልይን ከተራጉድ ምህላኽ ናይ ድኹማት መሳርሒ እዩ። ነቲ ብሓባር ኰይናን ሕጊ ተኸቲልና ዝመረጽናዮ መሪሕነትን ነቲ ንሱ ዘውጽኦ ፖሊሲታት ወይ መምሪሒታት  እናነጸግካ መሪሕነት ሕጊ ጥሒሱ ዘብል ኣይኮነን።

ኣብ ሓደ ሰልፊ ኣብቲ መትከልን ቅዋምን እንድሕሪ ተሰማሚዕካ፥ ነቲ መትከል ኣብ ግብሪ ዝትርጉም መሪሕነት ከኣ ዘወጽኦ መምርሒ ወይ ከኣ ፖሊሲ ርእይቶኻ ክትሀበሉ ዝኽልክል የለን። ነቲ ርእይቶኻ ግን ልዕሊ እቲ ዝበዝሑ ዝተቐበልዎ እንተዘይሰራዕኩሙለይ ምባል ግና፡ ንስኻ ኢኻ  ሕጊ ትጥሕስ ዘሎኻ እምበር እቲ ውሳኔ ዝውሰነ መሪሕነታዊ ኣካል ኣይኮነን። ምኽንያቱ እቲ መሪሕነት ክውስን እንከሎ ድሕሪ ክትዕ፡ ምይይጥን ሓሳብ ንሓሳብ ምውህሃብን እሞ ድማ ብብዝሒ ድምጺ እዩ። ስለዚ ናብ ግጉይ መንገዲ እናኣምራሕካ ኣነ እየ ቅኑዕ እናበልካ ምዝማር “ሓባል በልያ ከይትቅድመኪ” ዝዓይነቱ እዩ ዝመስል።

ቅድሚ ኹሉ ብፖሊሲ ወይ ብመትከል ኣይኮናን ንፋለለ ዘለና። ክንፈላለ ዝግበኣና ኣብ መሰረታዊ መትከል እዩ። ንኣብነት ኣብ ጉባኤ ዝተወሰነ፡ ምስ ጐረባብትና ተሳኒናን ተኸባቢርናን ኣብ ሓድሕድ ጉዳያት ጣልቃ ዘይምእታው ዝብል ፖሊሲ ኣሎና። እቲ ፖሊሲ ወይ መምርሕና ከኣ ምስ ጐረባብቲ ሃገራት ኣብ ጽልእን ግርጭትን ብዘየእቱ ኣገባብ ምውሳእን ምዝማድን ዝብል ናይ ትግባረ መምሪሒና ወይ ፖሊሲና እዩ። እዚ ናብ ኢትዮጵያ ኬድኩም፡ ስለምንታይ ምስ ውድባት ተዛቲኹም ኢልካ ምዕግርጋር፡ ኣነ እየ ፈላጥ፡ ብዘይካይ ዝፈልጥ የለን ካብ ምባል ዝፍለ ኣይኮነን። እዚ ከኣ ብስለት ዘይብሉ ፖለቲካ ብምዃኑ ነቲ ስነፍልጠታዊ ተንታን ክጥምዝዝን ከዘንብዕን ይፍትን። ከም ኣብነት ዓለም ብዓለሙ ዝሰርሓሉ “ድምጺ ብዙሓት ይስዕር” ዝብል መትከል ኣድማሳዊ ኣምር ገምጢሉ ዘቕርብ፡ ህልውናኻ ንምርግጋጽ ዝግበር ሓደገኛ ፍሕሶታትን ወስታታትን ካብ  ምዃን ሓሊፉ ካልእ ትርጉም የብሉን።

ልክዕ እዩ ሓደ ሰብ ክፉእ ክንሱ “ኣነ ክፉእ እየ” ኢሉ ክጽሕፍን ክምድርን ከምዘይክእል ርዱእ እዩ።  ኣብ ሓቂ ከይተሙርኰሰ ንኻልኦት ብምውንጃልን ንሱ ጥራሕ ቅኑዕ ኣምሲሉ ክገልጽን እንከሎ፡ ምልክት ዘይርጉእነት ምዃኑ ንጹር እዩ። እምበር እቲ ዝለዓለ ስልጣን ዘለዎ ጉባኤ ተጸቢኻ ኣብኡ እዋሕስ ኣግብእ ኣብ ክንዲ ምባህሃል፥ ኣብኡ ከም እትሰዓር ስለ ዝፈለጥካ ጎልጎል ገዲፍካ ጎቦጎቦ እንተኸድካ፡ ሓቅነት ዘይብልካ ምዃንካ ዘረድእ እዩ። ስለዚ እቶም ኣብ መትከሎምን ቅዋሞምን ጸኒዖም፡ ነቲ ዝመረጽዎ መሪሕነት ኣብ ጉባኤ ኣብጺሖም ክጸባጸብዎ ጸኒዖም ዝቃለሱ ኣባላት ዘለውዎ ሰልፊ ክፈርስ ማለት ዘበት እዩ።

 

Friday, 22 September 2017 22:08

Radio Demtsi Harnnet Kassel 21.09.2017

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እሰ ዓንቀጽ ሰዲህኤ

ማእከላይ ባይቶ ሰልፊ ዲሞክራሲ ህዝቢ ኤርትራ (ሰዲህኤ) 8ይ ምዱብ ዓመታዊ ኣኼባኡ ኣካይዱ ብዙሓት ጉዳያት ዳህሲሱ፡ ኣገደስቲ መድረኻውያን ውሳነታት ከም ዝወሰነ ኣብ ዘውጸኦ ደምዳሚ መግለጺኡ ኣነጺሩ ኣሎ። እዚ  ምዱብ ኣኼባ ባይቶ ዝተኻየደሉ ግዜ ብዙሓት ግዜ ዘይህቡ ውሽጣውን ግዳማውን ምዕባለታት ኣብ ዝተራእይሉ ግዜ እዩ። ማእከላይ ባይቶ ኣብዚ ኣኼባኡ ኣብ ሰልፊ ካብ ነዊሕ ግዜ ክቕልቀሉን ክሕቆኑን ዝጸንሑ’ሞ በቲ ክግበረሎም ዝጸንሐ ሓላፍነታዊ መሪሕነታዊ ኣተሓሕዛ ከምቲ ዝድለ ዘይሓወዩ ጉዳያት ነይረምዎ። እቲ ቀንዲ ከኣ ኣብ ዞባ ሰሜን ኣሜሪካ ክረአ ዝጸንሐ ምዕብልና እዩ። እዚ ጉዳይዚ ኣብቲ ኣኼባ ብኣዝዩ ዓሚቕን ሓላፍነታውን ኣተሓሕዛ  ምስተገምገመ፡ ደጊም ከም መቐጸልታ ናይቲ ብህድኣት ንምእላዩ ብመሪሕነት ክዝውተር ዝጸንሐ ኣተሓሕዛን ጻዕርን ብመሪሕነታዊ  ውሳነታት ተዛዚሙ እዩ።

እዚ ብኣኼባ ባይቶ ተወሲዱ ዘሎ ውሳነ ሓደ ስጉምቲ ንቕድሚት ኮይኑ፡ እቲ ቁስሊ መሊኡ ክሓውን ጉዳያት ግቡእ መስርሑ ሒዙ ክቕጽልን ግና ናይ ኩሉ ኣባል ሰልፍን፡ ንልዕልና ሕግን ሕጋዊ ኣሰራርሓን ዝሕለቑ ወገናትን ቀጻሊ ጻዕሪ ዝሓትት ምዃኑ ብሩህ እዩ። ሓደ ካብቲ ኣብ ቅድሜና ዘሎ’ሞ ከነዕውቶ ዝግበኣና ዕማም ህጹጽ ጉባአ ዞባ ሰሜን ኣሜሪካ እዩ። እዚ ብቐንዱ ኣብ ሰሜን ኣሜሪካን ከናዳን ናይ ዘለዉ ኣብ ጐኒ ሰልፋዊ ቅዋሞምን ሕጋዊ ትካላቱን ቀጥ ዝበሉ ዝምልከት ኮይኑ፡ ኣብ ኩሉ ኩርነዓት ዝርከብ ኣካላት ሰልፊ’ውን ምእንቲዚ ክጽዕት ግድን እዩ። ኣብ ጐኒ ቅዋም ሰልፊ ቀጥ ምባልን ሓቀኛ ሓይሊ ሓድነት ምዃንን፡ ዘዘድልየካ ዓንቀጻት እንዳቖንጠርካ ብምጉላህ፡ ነቲ ባህ ዘይብለካ እንዳሰገርካ ሚዛንካ ምዝንባዕ ኣይኮነን። ብኣንጻሩ ንብምልኡ እቲ ኣብ ሕጋዊ መድረኽ ዝጸደቐ ሕጋዊ ሰነድ፡ እንተላይ ነቲ ምስ ውልቃዊ ድሌትካ ዘይቃዶ ዓንቀጻት ኣኽቢርካን ተማእዚዝካን ምቕባል ምልክት ምልክን ተንበርካኽነትን ዘይኮነ፡ ሓደ  ካብቶም  ዲሞክራሲ ዝሰርሓሎም ኣዕኑድ እዩ።

ካብቲ ዝጸናሕናዮ ቀጨውጨው ወጺእና ንቕድሚት ክንስጉም ቅሩበነትናን ተወፋይነትናን መተካእታ ዘይበሉ ኮይኑ፡ ነዚ ዝምጥን ንህልዊ ኩነታት ኣብ ግምት ዘእቱ ንቕድሚት ጠማቲ ኣሰራርሓ ምትእትታው ከኣ ኣገዳሲ እዩ። ኣኼባ ባይቶ ነዚ ኣብ ግምት ኣእትዩ መስርሕ ምሕዳስ ሰልፊ ዝእምት ኣቐዲሙ ሽማግለ መዚዙ ከጽነዖ ንዝጸንሐ ሰነድ ኣጽዲቑ፡ ንኣፈጻጽምኡ ዝምልከት ኣካል መዚዙ፡ መተግበሪ ሜላታት ቀይሱ ብስሩዕ ኣገባብ ክከታተሎ ከኣ ወሲኑ ኣሎ። እዚ መስርሕ ምሕዳስ ንውሽጣዊ ሰልፋዊ ሃለዋት ጥራይ ዘይኮነ ነቲ ምስ ካልኦት ውድባት ዘስረሓና ሰፊሕ ጽላል ንምፍጣር ናብ ዘኽእል ዘተ ዝእምት እማመና’ውን ሓይልን ጉልበትን ዝህቦ እዩ።

ኩልና ከምዘይንዝገዖ ኣብ ደንበ ተቓውሞ ካብ ዘሎ ዓንቃፊ ጸገማት፡ እቲ ቀንዲ ፋሕ ዝበለ ኩለ-መዳያዊ ዓቕምና ኣወሃሂድና ኣብቲ ዘሰማምዓና ብሓባር ክንሰርሕ ዘይምኽኣልና ምዃኑ ተደጋጊሙ ዝተገልጸን ኩልና እናምነሉን እዩ። ማእከላይ ባይቶ ሰልፍና ነዚ ተገንዚቡ ኣቐዲሙ እማመ ሓባራዊ ስራሕ ፖለቲካዊ ቃልሲ ኣውጺኡ እዩ። ኣብዚ 8ይ ኣኼባኡ እውን ካብቶም መጸዋዕታ ዝተገብረሎም ወገናት ንዝተረኽበ ግብረ-መልሲ ዘተባብዕ ምዃኑ ምስ መዘነ፡ ካብዚ ንድሕሪ ነዚ ዛዕባዚ ኣብ ዝምልከት ክኽተሎ ዝግበኦ መንገድን ዝጽበዮ ቀጻሊ ርክባትን ዝምልከት ተሊሙ ኣሎ። ገለ ወገናት ንውሻጣዊ ሰልፋዊ ጉዳያት ካብ ምስ ካለኦት ወገናት ሓቢርካ ምስራሕ ነጺሎም ብምርኣይ፡ ኣብቲ ውሽጣዊ ጉዳይና ጥራይ ተኣሲርና ካብ ጉዳይ ሓድነት ውድባት ክንበኩር ዘይቅዱስ ነቐፈታ ከቕርቡ ጸኒሖም እዮም። እንተኾነ ዝያዳ ኣቓልቦ ሂብካ ምውጋን ውሽጣዊ ጉዳያትን ንሓባራዊ ስራሕ ቆላሕታ ምሃብን ነናይ ገዛእ ርእሶም ባህሪ ዘለዎም፡ ዝጸላለዉን ሓቢሮም ዝዕመሙን እዮም። እቲ ውሽጣዊ ሓድነት ንምድልዳል ዝግበር ቃልሲ ነቲ ምስ ካለኦት እትሰርሖ ዘሕይሎ እምበር፡ ዝጻበኦ ኣይኮነን። እቲ ሓባራዊ ስራሕ እውን ነቲ ውሽጣዊ ሓድነት ከምኡ። ሰለ’ዚ ከምቲ ኣብቲ መግለጺ ባይቶ ተጠቒሱ ዘሎ ኣካላት ደንበ ተቕውሞና ካብ ናይ ቅድሚ ሕጂ ተበታቲንካ ናይ ምውፋር ኣሉታዊ ተመኩሮ ተማሂርና ብሓባር ንምስራሕ ክንግደሰሉ ይግበኣና።

ስርዓት ህግደፍ ኣብዚ እዋንዚ ዕድመ ስልጣኑ ናይ ምንዋሕ መደብ ሰሪዑ፡ ነዚ ንምትግባር ይሕግዘኒ ዝበሎ ኢደወነናዊ ስጉምትታት ይወስድ ምህላዉ ንልኡላውነት ሃገርን ህዝብን ጥራይ ዘይኮነ ንህልውናኦም’ውን ኣብ ሓደጋ ዘእቱ ምዃኑ ኣኼባ ባይቶ ዝመዘኖ ካልእ ዕዙዝ ጉዳይ እዩ። ነዚ ከይሲ መደባቱ ንምዕዋት ንምድኻምን ምፍራስን ሓይሊ ተቓውሞ ከም ዝጽዕትን ነዚ ንምትግባር ቆርበት በጊዕ ዝተኸድኑ ተዃሉ ከዋፍርን ከኣ ናይ ግድን እዩ። ነዚ ሓደገኛ ጉዕዞ ህግደፍ ናይ ምዕጋት ሓላፍነት ናብ ሓደ ውድብ ወይ ማሕበር ዝግደፍ ዘይኮነ፡ ናይ ኩሉ ህልውናን ቀጻልነትን ኤርትራን ህዝባን ዘገድሶ ኣካል ሓላፍነት እዩ። ኣኼባ ባይቶ “ሓቢርና ንስራሕ ከነድምዕ፡ ሓቢርና ነድምጽ ከነስምዕ!” ዝብል ጭረሖ ከጉልሕ እንከሎ ከኣ ሓቢርካ ምስራሕ ድሕነት ሃገር ኣብ ምርግጋጽ ዘለዎ እጃም ንምብራኽ እዩ። ብኣንጻሩ ኣብዚ ሓቢርካ ምስራሕ ወሳኒ  ዝኾነሉ ግዜ ጸቢብ ውልቃውን ጉጅላውን ስምዒት ቅድሚት ሰሪዕካ ቀይዲበተኻዊ መንገዲ ምምራጽ ክሳብ ክንደይ ግዳይ ህግደፍ ንምዃን ዘቃልዕ ምዃኑ ክዝንጋዕ ዘይግበኦን እዩ። ካብዚ ንምድሓን ከኣ “ከይንምናዕ ንጽናዕ።”

The Central Council of the Eritrean People's Democratic Party (EPDP) ended its 8th regular meeting  on 17 September 2017 after a chain of five sessions held since 26 August 2017.During those sessions, the Council solemnly reviewed and weighed  internal Eritrean and regional developments. Likewise, the Council thoroughly discussed various reports of the Executive Committee and, after making necessary changes and improvements, adopted them as legal party documents.

 

Topmost in the agenda of the 8th regular meeting of the Council was the ongoing distressing situation in Eritrea under the dictatorial PFDJ regime, and how this dilemma could be overcome. To this end, and after commending the efforts so far exerted by Eritrean activists and the international community in exposing the true nature of the regime and the crimes it has been committing against the new nation, the EPDP Central Council encouraged all struggling forces and their supporters to redouble their struggle in order to shorten the days suffering in Eritrea.

 

In addition, the Council reviewed and agreed on appropriate decisions regarding an anomaly that transpired within the North America zone of the party; the process of the Party Renewal project now underway, and the proposal for joint work in the Eritrean opposition camp. In regard to these issues, the Council agreed on points summarized below.

On North America Zone

After reviewing and weighing the various disruptive acts in the region and the legitimate and constitutional corrective measures taken by party leadership, the 8th regular meeting resolved as follows:

  1. The unruly acts and wild pronouncements of  some elements of the ex-zone committee in North America have nothing to do with the EPDP and its organs;
  2. Highly commended  EPDP North America members who are  abiding  by decisions of the party leadership elected at the second EPD Congress  and who are closely cooperating with the newly formed Preparatory Committee for an emergency zonal congress for North America party branches;
  3.  Likewise, the EPDP Council called upon all members in North America to closely cooperate with the Preparatory Committee and share their views by attending  the emergency congress now under preparation.  

 

On Party Renewal Process

Building on the decision of its 7th regular meeting of a year ago on the paramount importance of launching a process in party renewal, the Central Council thoroughly discussed report of its committee assigned a year ago to study the subject matter and decided as follows:

 

  1. Adopted the Party Renewal document after making necessary additions and changes;
  2. Formed a new Commission mandated to draft implementation modalities and to continue studying additional possibility for a successful party renewal; 
  3. The Council also decided to hold extraordinary meetings every two months to receive reports of the Commission and take necessary resolutions on the project.

 

On EPDP Proposal for Joint Work in the Opposition Camp

Acknowledging the fact that we in the Eritrean opposition camp as a whole did not measure up to the required level joint action to address as a matter of urgency the situation in Eritrea, the meeting affirmed that the EPDP proposal for joint work of the forces in the opposition was timely and critically important. Beside extending its deep appreciation to all organizations that so far positively reacted to the proposal with comments and further queries for clarifications, the Council mandated the Executive Committee to make extended outreach be they  individual organizations and/or groupings/alliances to promote the idea of joint action. Further, the Council called upon all political organizations and civil association in the opposition camp to review the weaknesses of the past in a responsible manner and make a new start with vigour and redoubled energy.

The regular meeting also discussed a report from the standing committee on financial and social affairs, and made distinction on matters that need further scrutiny by the committee and those that have be put to implementation by the executive body.

Based on its findings on current developments in the Red Sea Basin, which are far from serving the interests of our people and the general security of the region, the EPDP Central Council expressed its deep concern about the dangers posed by the lawless actions and relations of the Eritrean regime. Thus, in order to confront the looming dangers to Eritrea's every existence, the Council called upon the opposition camp to urgently look for a viable formula for joint work, and urged the Eritrean defence forces and regime sympathizers in diaspora to stand on the side of their victimized people.

As part of its agenda, this 8th regular meeting of the Council elected party chairman on the basis of its constitutional article 6.1.6. Eight candidates nominated by the new chairperson as his team were voted one after the other and approved to head various executive offices for the one-year. Also elected was the party auditor general.

On the other hand, the Central Council took time to highly commend the entire EPDP rank and file found in many parts of the globe for their efforts and unflinching dedication to strengthen the party and defend it from all sorts of threats and dangers. It encouraged the total party membership to continue extending their legitimate constructive ideas on the basis of party constitution  and boost their usual sacrifices of all kinds to further build up the EPDP.

At the conclusion of the fifth and final session, the Council paid tribute to compatriots who were arrest on 18 September 2001 as well as all those who disappeared or were incarcerated before and after that date and found themselves languishing in the prisons of the repressive regime or those who could have died of ill-treatment. The Council reminded the Eritrean people and the international community of their responsibility to make pressure bear on the dictatorial regime in Eritrea.   

We call for a joint action to make a difference!!

Glory and eternal memory to Eritrean Martyrs!!

 

EPDP Central Council

17 September, 2017

 

8ይ ምዱብ ኣኼባ ማእከላይ ባይቶ ሰዲህኤ 5ይ ክፋልን መወዳእታን ኣኼባኡ ብ17 መስከረም ኣካይዱ ንሰልፊ መጻኢ ሓደ ዓመት እትመርሕ ፈጻሚት መሪጹ።

እዚ ኣኼባ ብዝለዓለ ደረጃ ካብ ዝተመያየጠሎም ኣጀንዳታ፡ ኣብ ኤርትራ ዲሞክራስያዊ ለውጢ ንምርግጋጽ ዝቃለሱ ዘለዉ ፖለቲካዊ ሓይልታት ብሓባር ዝሰርሕሉ መድረኽ ዝፍጠረሉ ኩነታት ዝምልከት ነይሩ። ኣብዚ እቲ ኣኼባ ነዚ ብዝምልከት ኣብ ዝሓለፈ ወርሒ ሰነ 2017 ብሰዲህኤ እማመ ካብ ዝዝርጋሕ ዝተራእየ ምዕብልና ብዝምልከት ተዘራሪቡ። ኣብዚ ምይይጡ ንመጻኢ እቲ ጉዳይ ከመይ ከም ዝተሓዝ ዘመልክት ቀጥዒ ኣውጺኡ፡ እታ ዝተመርጸት ሓዳስ  ፈጻሚት ከኣ ከም ሓደ ኣገዳሲ ዛዕባ ንክከታተሎ ሓላፍነት ሂቡ። ብዘይካዚ ኣብቲ ናይ መወዳእታ ክፋል ኣኼባኡ ካብ ሓባራዊ ሽማግለ ኣብያተ-ጽሕፈት ገንዘባውን ማሕበራውን ኣብ ዝቐረበ መጽናዕቲ ተመያይጡ ኣገዳሲ መምርሕታት ሂቡ። 

ኣብ መወዳእታ ናይዚ 5ይ ክፋል ኣኼባኡ ባይቶ 9 ዝኣባላታ ፈጻሚት መሪጹ። ኣቶ መንግስተኣብ ስመሮም ከኣ ዳግማይ ኣቦመንበር ኮይኑ ምስተመርጸ ሕጹያት ኣባላት ፈጻሚት ሽማግለ ኣቕሪቡ።

ኣብ ነፍሲ ወከፍ ሕጹይ በብሓደ  ድምጺ ምስ ተዋህበ፡ ኩሎም ሕጹያት ብባይቶ ተቐባልነት ረኺቦም። ካብቶም 9 እቶም ክልተ ወ/ሮ ኣድያም ተፈራ ሓላፊት ቤት ጽሕፈት ጉዳይ ደቂ ኣንስትዮን ኣቶ ፍሰሃየ ሓጐስ ሓላፊ ቤት ጽሕፈት ማሕበራዊ ጉዳይን ሓደስቲ እዮም። ዝርዝር ናይቶም 9 ብኣቦመንበር ኣቶ መንግስተኣብ ኣስመሮም ጀሚርካ፡ ብቅደም ሰዓብ ፊደል ላቲን፡ ኣድያም ተፈራ ሓላፊት ቤት ጽሕፈት ጉዳይ ደቂ ኣንስትዮ፡ ደበሳይ በየነ ሓላፊ ቤት ጽሕፈት ዜና፡  

EPDP 8th CC Meeting Ends Elects EC 17092017 doc 2 1

ፍሰሃየ ሓጐስ ሓላፊ ቤት ጽሕፈት ማሕበራዊ ጉዳይ፡ እድሪስ እስማዒል ጸሓፊ ፈጻሚት፡ መድሃኔ ህብትዝጊ ሓላፊ ቤት ጽሕፈት ጉዳይ መንእሰያት፡ ረዘነ ተስፋጼን ሓላፊ ቤት ጽሕፈት ገንዘባዊ ጉዳይ፡ ተስፋይ ወልደሚካኤል (ደጊጋ) ሓላፊ ቤት ጽሕፈት ውደባዊ ጉዳያትን ወልደየሱስ ዓማር ሓላፊ ቤት ጽሕፈት ወጻኢ ጉዳያትን እዮም።

እዚ 8ይ ምዱብ ኣኼባ ማእከላይ ባይቶ ሰዲህኤ ቀዳማይን ካለኣይን ክፋላት ኣኼባኡ ኣብ 26ን 27ን ነሃሰ 2017 ከም ዘካየደ ዝፍለጥ እዩ። ኣብዚ ክፋላትዚ ናይ ኩለን ኣብያተ ጽሕፈት ፈጻሚት ሽማግለን ካለኦት ኣካላት ሰፍንን ዓመታዊ ጸብጻባት ሰሚዑ ምስ ተመያየጠ  ዘጽዲቑ። ኣብ ናይ 9 መስከረም 2017 3ይ ክፋል ኣኼባኡ ድማ ኣብ ሰሜን ኣሜሪካ ናይ ሓደ ኣባል ባልነት ክሳብ መጻኢ ጉባአ ናይ ምንጥልጣል ውሳነ ብምቅዋም ዝተራእየ ዘይሃናጺ ምንቅስቓስ ዝምልከት ጸብጻብ ሰሚዑ ኣገደስቲ ውሳነታት ከኣ ወሲኑ።

ኣብቲ ብ10 መስከረም 2017 ዝተጋብአ 4ይ ክፋል ኣኼባ ከኣ ሰፊሕ ምይይጥ ኣካይዱ ንምሕዳስ ሰልፊ ብዝምልት ከተጽነዕ ብዝጸንሐት ሽማግለ ንዝቐረበሉ ሰነድ ኣጽዲቑ። ብዘይካዚ ኣብ ከክልተ ወርሒ ናብ ዝካየድ ፍሉይ ኣኼባ ባይቶ ንመስርሕ ምሕዳስ ዝምልከት ጸብጻባታ እተቕርብ ኮሚሽን መዚዙ። ኣብ ርእሲ’ሲ ኣብዚ ክፋል ኣኼባዚ ኣቶ ንዘርኣብሩኽ ገብረታትዮም ጠቕላላ ተቖጻጻሪ ሰልፊ ክኸውን መሪጽዎ።

A study, commissioned  by the Dutch government, confirms the use of intimidation and societal pressure by the Eritrean authorities on their diaspora living in the Netherlands  to extract additional taxes.

The report concludes that:

The means of collection that are described can add to the fact that it is very difficult for Eritreans in the Netherlands to detach themselves from the country that many of them have fled. The Cabinet has labelled this as unacceptable before and this remains unchanged.

The report – commissioned by the Dutch government – finds that the 2% tax is collected by the Eritrean authorities through its consular and other officials.

“According to the report Eritrean embassies are responsible for the collection of the diaspora tax and they fall under the control of the governing party, the PFDJ. The local head of the PFDJ is the person who is really in charge in the embassies; this person is usually not an Eritrean diplomat.”

The Dutch authorities call on members of the Eritrean diaspora to report any intimidation to the police and promises decisive action:

When firm evidence emerges of intimidation and unlawful coercion in relation to the collection of the Eritrean diaspora tax by the embassy in The Hague, diplomatic measures will not be ruled out.

Martin


Unofficial translation of the letter from the Dutch ministry of Foreign Affairs on the Eritrean diaspora tax in Europe report

 To: Chair of the second chamber of the Dutch Parliament

Date: 18 September 2017

Subject: Eritrean diaspora tax in Europe

Dear Chair,

In a letter to your Chamber on 15 December 2016 (“Eritrea and the influence of Eritrea in the Netherlands”, kst 22831-125), the Cabinet stated that it would commission a study into the diaspora tax in several European countries. This study was requested by your Chamber as per the motion 119 of Parliament member Karabulut (Kst 22 813-119). The research has now been completed and the Cabinet hereby presents the research report, titled “The 2% Tax for Eritreans in the diaspora”.[1]

The DSP-research, background and methodology

In 2016, several options were explored for investigating “the nature and extent of the diaspora taxation in the European context”, as was requested in the motion. Contact with the European External Action Service (EEAS) in Brussels and with the relevant EU member states showed that there was no political support, or a sense of priority, for a common European study into this subject from other member states.

Following this, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs commissioned its own study in seven countries. This study was executed by the DSP-groep in Amsterdam in cooperation with European External Policy Advisors (EEPA) in Brussels and the Tilburg University. The DSP-groep has previously produced a qualitative study into the integration of Eritreans and issues in the Eritrean community in the Netherlands for the Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment. The diaspora tax was covered in this study, among other issues.[2] The current study builds on this previous work. The group questioned 23 Eritreans in the Netherlands as well as Eritreans in Italy (15), Norway (14), Belgium (11), Germany (9), Sweden (8) and the United Kingdom (7) using interviews and questionnaires. All of these countries have been formally notified and have been given the opportunity to contribute to this study. With the exception of Belgium, all countries have a relatively large Eritrean diaspora. In addition, 34 international experts were consulted and an extensive literature study on diaspora tax was undertaken.

To the best of our knowledge this study is the first targeted effort to map this tax to date. The Cabinet therefore wants to thank the authors for the work that was done. Naturally the scope and methodology of the study were constrained by finances and the time available; the diversity of the contexts in the studied countries and the secrecy of the Eritrean diaspora. A substantially larger number of Eritreans would have to be interviewed in order to come to a truly accurate representation of the Eritrean community. Moreover, individual cases cannot usually be used to produce an objectively verifiable result, even if executed with utmost care. The findings of this study should be viewed in light of these circumstances.

The Eritrean embassies in the five countries studied have been approached by the DSP-groep, but have not responded.[3] In addition, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs has presented a questionnaire about the diaspora tax to the Eritrean embassy. In response, the Eritrean government stated that Eritrea has provided detailed information on the tax many times over the years and that it considers these new questions a provocation that is, according to Eritrea, typical of the hostility and lack of respect for Eritrea that the Dutch parliament and the Dutch government displays.

The findings of the DSP-report

The report covers the following aspects of the diaspora tax:

  1. The historical context and the legal basis of the tax.

The report explains that the tax was invented by foreign offices of the EPLF in the eighties.[4] Back then, the EPFL fought for independence of Eritrea and helped Eritreans in the diaspora to send money home. Gradually, the custom of sending contributions to the armed struggle via EPLF-offices came into existence within the diaspora. After independence, such contributions were formalized by means of two proclamations from 1991 and 1995. The DSP-groep argues that there is no clear legal basis for levying the diaspora tax, since the country has no valid constitution and lacks a legitimate legislature. The same applies to the sanctions for not paying the tax. The DSP-report states that the consequences of not paying the tax (see point 3) can be regarded as forms of coercion. This coercion is aimed at Eritreans in the Netherlands and Europe, and family members in Eritrea. The instruments that the Eritrean government allegedly uses are sorted into four categories by the researchers: 1. emotional pressure, 2. Intimidation and fear, 3. punishment and 4. extortion (related to fraud).

  1. The context of international law

The report mentions reports of the ‘Somalia-Eritrea Monitoring Group’ (SEMG) and Resolutions of the UN Security Council, the African Union, the EU and the advice of the Dutch government’s advisor on international public law (Extern Volkenrechtelijke Adviseur).[5] In all of these reports and statements, it is explicitly stated that the levying of a diaspora tax is allowed in principle under international law, but that levying of the tax can only take place without coercion or intimidation.

  1. The organisation of the tax collection

In chapter 5, the DSP report elaborates on the bodies involved with the collection of the tax, including Eritrean embassies and consulates. The main findings concern the role of the political party – the PDFJ – and concludes that the decisions of who is taxable, and what part of an individual’s income is taxable, are arbitrary (and sometimes negotiable). According to the report Eritrean embassies are responsible for the collection of the diaspora tax and they fall under the control of the governing party, the PFDJ. The local head of the PFDJ is the person who is really in charge in the embassies; this person is usually not an Eritrean diplomat.

Next, the manner of the diaspora tax collection is covered in the report, along with the question of whether the tax is voluntary or mandatory. The DSP report states that payment of the taxes is enforced through the refusal of services, especially consular services.[6] The interviewees mention other instruments, such as taking away privileges, social pressure and exclusion. In addition, the DSP report notes vagueness around the procedures, the amounts and especially the consequences of paying or not paying of the diaspora tax.

  1. Differences between the countries that were studied

When comparing the taxation in the various European countries, the DSP-groep concludes that several factors are of influence to the modus operandi, such as: the presence of an Eritrean embassy, the size and strength of the diaspora and the interest for the diaspora tax shown by the government and politicians of the host country.

  1. Perception of the Eritrean tax payers and conclusion

Finally, the authors describe how the Eritreans interviewed experience the diaspora tax and the ways in which they are coerced to pay. The authors summarise that the levying of the tax is accompanied by forms of coercion that give the Eritrean authorities a strong hold on the Eritrean diaspora in the countries that were studied.

The UN assessment of the diaspora tax

Since 2011 the ‘Somalia-Eritrea Monitoring Group’ (SEMG) invoked by the UN has been researching the collection of the diaspora tax by Eritrea and the possible use of the tax revenue for purposes that are sanctioned (for example the purchase of weapons). In these annual reports the SEMG does not comment on the legal basis, but refers to the proclamations that form the basis for the collection of the diaspora tax according to the Eritrean government.[7]
In resolution 2023 (2011), the UN Security Council calls on Eritrea to stop the collection of the diaspora tax. This resolution also dictates UN member states to hold accountable all persons – on their territory – who are guilty of the use of coercion and other illegal means of collecting this tax. The SEMG concludes that taxation by the Eritrean government is increasingly taking place under the radar and is no longer collected ‘door-to-door’ as a consequence of the resolution.[8] According to the SEMG, the focus has shifted to collection on a ‘voluntary’ basis through the organisation of cultural events where the tax is collected and the use of intermediaries that travel to Eritrea with cash. The SEMG also sees the threat of denying consular services as an instrument to force the diaspora to pay the tax.[9] As early as 2013, the SEMG advised the UN member states to call a halt to the collection of the tax via their national police authorities.[10] The main obstacle for tackling tax collection that is accompanied by coercion, fraud and extortion is the limited amount of police reports filed by Eritreans, due to the fear of possible consequences for themselves or family members in Eritrea.[11]

Societal consequences of the Eritrean diaspora tax in the Netherlands

The means of collection that are described can add to the fact that it is very difficult for Eritreans in the Netherlands to detach themselves from the country that many of them have fled. The Cabinet has labelled this as unacceptable before and this remains unchanged.
The means of collection of the diaspora tax that are described in the report have negative effects on the integration of Eritreans in the Netherlands. Those that do not pay the tax (on time) risk social exclusion and isolation, a means through which Eritreans feel pressurised to comply with the ‘obligations’ imposed on them. The DSP-groep report states that payment of the tax can sometimes be a requirement for participation in social events and is therefore accepted by a large number of Eritreans in order to avoid a possible confrontation with the Eritrean government and avoids crossing an imaginary ‘red line’. The fear that family members in Eritrea will be victimised if there is non-payment can also play a role.
The already difficult participation of Eritreans in Dutch society is jeopardised by a combination of the diaspora tax, high dependency on social security payments (50% in 2014) and possible other contributions.[12] When these people are pressured to give up part of their – in many cases already limited – financial means, they can sink below the minimum level of subsistence. This limits their ability to integrate into and participate in Dutch society. This is especially true for those that have trouble accessing municipal arrangements for participation and integration, as is the case for many Eritreans who have recently arrived in the Netherlands.

Response of the Cabinet

The Eritrean diaspora forms a heterogeneous group that can be divided, inter alia, into three different subgroups, depending on when they migrated to Europe. The first wave occurred from 1980-1998. This group fled during the independence war between Eritrea and Ethiopia. The people were proponents of Eritrean independence and most of these refugees were – or still are – members of the ELF, and later the EPLF, which is currently the PFDJ (the ruling party). From this wave came a generation of youths who were born and raised in Europe. A second wave occurred from 1998-2010. They fled for a variety of reasons during and after the border conflicts with Ethiopia. The third and current wave (from 2010) has fled the present regime; the regime that is run by the party supported by (originally) the first wave. This means that a gap exists within the Eritrean diaspora between the recent arrivals and Eritreans that have arrived in the Netherlands at an earlier stage. Furthermore, diverse groups of Eritreans have different assessments of their government’s activities, such as the collection of diaspora tax. Cultural events that are organised are also experienced completely differently by the various segments within the Eritrean diaspora.

The collection of Eritrean diaspora tax has been a concern of the Cabinet for some time. Due to the limitations of this study, the secrecy of the Eritrean communities in Europe and the diffuse and changing approaches to collecting the tax, we cannot make conclusive statements about the situation in all countries that were studied. However, the DSP report does confirm the earlier analysis that the collection of diaspora tax in the Netherlands takes place in a non-transparent, and therefore undesirable, manner.
Besides this, the DSP-groep report confirms that the means of collecting the diaspora tax are complex, due to the many forms this takes, depending on the circumstances in a country. In the absence of an embassy (or office) the collection can take place via an ‘information office’ as was the case in Norway. When Canada took measures to tackle the staff capacity of the embassy, the tax collection was continued in secrecy, between intermediaries that travelled between Eritrea and Canada. The report does not clearly indicate why the political and media attention varies so greatly between the counties that were studied.

Thus, although there is no unambiguous picture, the Cabinet deems it necessary to keep challenging the ways in which the diaspora tax is collected. An overview is given below of the measures taken so far and the intended next steps.

Measures taken

  • On the 16 October 2016 it was decided by Ministerial Decree that the collection of the diaspora tax by Eritrea is prohibited when this is accompanied by fraud, coercion, extortion and other criminal offenses (nr. MinBuza-2016.707235; Staatscourant 2016, nr. 58321). Through this measure, the Public Prosecutor obtained the legal framework necessary to prosecute people that are involved in such means of collection.
  • Through active engagement, the Netherlands has succeeded in responding to two relevant paragraphs in the Eritrea-resolution that was adopted by consensus at the 35th session of the Human Rights Council last June 23rd: one paragraph calls upon the Eritrean government to stop the use of threats, extortion and other illegal means when collecting the diaspora tax and the other paragraph calls upon Eritrea to stop using so-called “regret forms”[13].
  • The Eritrean authorities have again – firmly – been addressed about the (means of) collection of the Eritrean diaspora tax in the Netherlands. These conversations took place, among others, in August 2016 and in April 2017 with Minister Koenders (Foreign Affairs), and additionally regularly at senior official levels, most recently at the end of July 2017. At the last conversation, a questionnaire about the current DSP study was handed over; no reply has been received to this.

Alongside the measures described above, the Cabinet has taken measures concerning the issues at play in the Eritrean community in the Netherlands in a broader context.

  • Several trajectories have been initiated to improve the integration and participation of Eritreans in the Netherlands. For example, work has been done to produce guidance; an informative brochure that covers the specific problems within the Eritrean community and that gives municipalities, societal and welfare organisations a framework for action. This guidance is available online from August 2017 at https://www.kis.nl/sites/default/files/bestanden/publicaties/handreiking-ondersteuning-eritrese-nieuwkomers-bij-integratie.pdf
  • In addition, the Expertise-unit Social Stability (ESS) of the Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment will expand its network in the Eritrean community to have a better overview of potential societal tensions. In the Autumn of 2017, ESS is organising two regional meetings in order to seek connections between various groups within the Eritrean community and to sustainably improve the cooperation with municipalities.

Planned measures

  1. The Cabinet will hand over the DSP research report to the Somalia and Eritrea Monitoring Group (SEMG) of the UN Security Council, to the Commission of the African Union, to the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights and to the Special Rapporteur for Human Rights in Eritrea.
  2. The Cabinet will share the DSP report with EU member states and will introduce the issue of the diaspora tax as a part of the European-Eritrean relations that are based on a strategy of pressure and dialogue.
  3. The Cabinet will continue putting pressure on the Eritrean embassy in Brussels (co-accredited in the Netherlands) and will keep on making clear its dissatisfaction about the lack of available information, and ask for more openness about the manner of collecting the diaspora tax, in the Netherlands. When firm evidence emerges of intimidation and unlawful coercion in relation to the collection of the Eritrean diaspora tax by the embassy in The Hague, diplomatic measures will not be ruled out.
  4. The Cabinet will proactively enter a dialogue with Eritrea with regard to this issue. The Cabinet will continue to discourage the participation of high-level Eritrean authorities at ‘cultural’ or other diaspora events in the Netherlands.
  5. The earlier DSP report about the influence of Eritrea in the Netherlands (covered in the parliamentary letter integral handling of Eritrea and the influence of Eritrea in the Netherlands, 2016) recommended a central point of contact for the Eritrean community or social workers to report incidents and matters relating to the Eritrean community. The Ministries of Social Affairs and Employment and Security and Justice do not believe that such a point of contract is a meaningful or effective addition to existing options. Instead of a new initiative, there is a need to take steps to improve the willingness of Eritreans to file police reports and to increase the trust of the Eritrean community in the Dutch government. From now on, both the guidance and the activities of the ministry of Social Affairs and Employment can aim more concretely at increasing the awareness of existing means of filing a police report. It is already being made clear to the community that reporting any threats and intimidation to the police is required for action to be taken.

Measures in the justice department

The levying of diaspora tax by Eritrea and the collection of it in the Netherlands are not unlawful in principle. It only becomes illegal when the collection happens in combination with coercion or threats. The Dutch legal system offers sufficient means of prosecution in such cases. Through the Ministerial Decree mentioned earlier (Staatscourant 2016, nr. 58321) it is formally forbidden to collect diaspora tax through extortion, threat, deception or by use of other unlawful means, or in case the tax revenue is destined for any goals that are in contravention of the weapons embargo of Resolution 1907 (2009) by the Security Council of the United Nations and the Decision 2010/127/GBVB of the Council of the European Union of March 2010.

As mentioned in the letter of 15 December 2016, the police and the Public Prosecutor are generally already alert to the exertion of pressure, coercion or extortion, because these are illegal practices. Leads are required in order to prosecute individuals that are guilty of collecting the diaspora tax through unlawful coercion and intimidation. This is why it is of the utmost importance that the members of the Eritrean community file a police report when they experience coercion or threats, so that the Public Prosecutor and the police can follow up on this. The importance of early signalling and stimulation of the willingness to report among Eritreans will be highlighted again in the earlier mentioned guidance to municipalities, societal and welfare organisations.

Beside this, an action framework has been developed in order to further inform and alert police employees to the problems in the Eritrean community. This action framework has since led to a number of reports of facts related to the collection of diaspora tax. The follow-up of the reports depends, among other things, on the prospect of conviction in these cases. If the Public Prosecutor receives signals of these or other possible illegal activities, it will investigate leads for further criminal investigations and could proceed to convictions.

In conclusion:

In the letter 22831-128/2017D21219 of 10 July 2017 of the registry of the Second Chamber to the Minister of Foreign affairs, the minister is requested to inform the Chamber before Prince’s Day (3rd Tuesday of September each year) about the execution of the motion Azmani/Sjoerdsma (22831, nr. 109).  The Chamber has been informed about this motion in the Eritrea-letter of the Cabinet of 15 December 2016 (kst 22831-125).

Minister of Foreign Affairs, Bert Koenders

Minister of Security and Justice, Stef Blok

Minister of Social Affairs and Employment, L.F. Asscher

Attachments:

1) “The 2% Tax for Eritreans in the diaspora – Facts, figures and experiences in seven European countries”, DSP-groep Amsterdam, Tilburg School of Humanities, Department of Culture Studies.

2) “The 2% Tax for Eritreans in the diaspora” – Appendices

[1] “Diaspora tax” and “2% tax” refer to the “Recovery and Rehabilitation Tax” that Eritrea imposes and collects from Eritreans in the diaspora.

[2] The DSP-groep wrote the report “Nothing is what it seems”, which was discussed in the Eritrea-letter of the Cabinet sent on 15 December 2016 (Kst 22831-125) and which was added as an attachment tot his letter.

[3] Note: there is no Eritrean embassy in Norway.

[4] The EPLF is the Eritrean People’s Liberation Front, which after independence transformed itself to the ruling single-party government party PFDJ, the People’s Front for Democracy and Justice.

[5] This advice was included as an attachment to the Eritrea-letter of the Cabinet on 15 Dec. 2016 (ks22831-125)

[6] Page 86, DSP report. See also: SEMG 2015, paragraph 81.

[7] See for example SEMG 2015, paragraph 89.

[8] SEMG 2012, paragraph 93 and SEMG 2014, paragraph 107

[9] SEMG 2012, paragraphs 95,96, 97.

[10] SEMG 2013, paragraph 133

[11] SEMG 2015, paragraph 85.

[12] These other contributions are described in the earlier DSP report “nothing is what it seems”; it concerns ‘voluntary’ contributions at parties and festivals, collections by the Church, collections for specific projects in Eritrea (that may turn out not to exist), etc.

[13] By signing these forms, Eritreans accept the responsibility for their illegal exit and for any other crime, if committed, before they left the country illegally, in order to restore their rights to consular services. State Secretary Dijkhoff from the ministry of Security and Justice labelled this practice reprehensible earlier this year, in answer to the parliamentary questions of parliament member Gesthuizen (SP) (ah-tk-20162017-1051).

Click here to read the full report
Click here to read an unofficial English translation of the accompanying letter by the Dutch government
Click here to view the report and the original letter on the website of the Dutch government
Click here to read more on the EEPA website

Source=https://martinplaut.wordpress.com/2017/09/20/dutch-government-promises-to-act-on-eritrean-intimidation-of-diaspora/

ብዕለት 17.09.2017 ጨንፈር ፍራንክፎርትን ከባቢኡን ወርሓዊ ኣኼባኡ ኣካይዱ። ኣኼባ ብኣቦ መንበር ጨንፈር ንኣኼበኛታት እንቋዕ ደሓን መጻእኩም ብምባልን፡ ሰዓት ኣኽቢሮም ብምምጽኦም ብምምስጋንን እዩ ኣኼባ ተኸፊቱ። ናይቲ ኣኼባ ኣጀንዳታት ድማ ተገሊጹ። ዝነበሩ ኣጀንዳታት ድማ፡-

1 -  እዋናዊ ሓበሬታታት ውሽጣውን ግዳማውን ንጥፈታት ሰልፍናን ደምበ ተቓውሞን ምልውዋጥ፤

2 - ገምጋም ፈስቲቫል ፍራንክፎርት 2017፤

3 - ኣበዓዕላ ሓደ መስከረም ምጅማር ብረታዊ ሰውራ ኤርትራ፤

ኣጀንዳታት ሓደ ብሓደ ተኣትዮም ድማ ሰፊሕ ምርድዳእ ተገይሩሎም። ኣብ ቀዳማይ ኣጀንዳ ድማ ሰልፍና ዘሳልጦ ዘሎ ናይ ሰልፊ ምሕዳስ መደባትን ጽፈት ውሽጣዊ ኣሰራርሓ ሰልፊን ብምንኣድን፡ እቲ ምስ ካልኦት ናይ ተቓውሞ ሓይልታት ንምልዛብ ዘውጽኦ እማመ ገለ ኣወንታዊ መልሲ ብምርካቡን ኣኼበኛ ትስፉው ምዃኑ ርእዩን። ከምኡ‘ውን ነቲ ብዛዕባ እቶም ኤርትራውያንን ኢትዮጵያውያንን ኣብ ኢጣልያ  ግቡእ መሰል ናይ ወዲሰብ ተነፊጉዎም ኣብ ጽርግያ ተደርብዮም ንዘለዉ፡  መንግስቲ ኢጣልያ ኣቓልቦ ክገብረሉን ኣቦ መንበር ሰልፊ ናብ መንግስቲ ኢጣልያ ንዝጸሓፎ ኣብየቱታ ኣሞጒሱ። ኣብ‘ዚ እዋን‘ዚ ይካየድ ንዘሎ ኣኼባ ማእከላይ ባይቶ ሰልፍና ድማ ዕዉት ኮይኑ ንክወጽእ ትምኒቱ ገሊጹ።

ከምኡ‘ውን ብዛዕባ‘ቲ ብዕለት 10 መስከረም ኣምበሳደር ዶክቶር ዓንደብርሃን ኣብ ፍራንክፎርት ዝገበሮ ህዝባዊ ኣኼባ ኣኼበኛ ተዘራሪቡሉን ኣዎንታዊ ምንባሩ ገምጊሙን። ዶክቶር ዓንደብርሃን ብዛዕባ ኣሰታትፋ ኣብ ቃልስን፡ ብዛዕባ ሓድነት ተቓዋሚ ሓይልታትን፡ ከምኡ‘ውን ነቲ ምልካዊ ስርዓት ዘበላሽዎን ዝዘምቶን ዘሎ ሃብቲ ሃገር ተሓታትነት ንክህልዎ ካብ ሕጂ ክንሓስበሉን ከነጽንዖን ዘሎና ጉዳይ ምዃኑን ብዝርዝር መሃሪ ዝኾነ መግለጺታት ዝሃቦ፡ እቶም ኣብቲ ኣኼባኡ ዝተሳተፉ ኣባላት ጨንፈርና ብሰፊሑ ድሕሪ ምብራህ ኣኼበኛ ካብ ክግበር ዘለዎ ናይዚ እዋን ዕማም ምዃኑ ኣገምዚቡ። ኣብ ሕቶን መልስን ምስ ተኣትወ ድማ ንዝቐረበሉ ሕቶታት ዘዕግብ መልሲ ሂቡሉ። ከምዚ ዝኣመሰለ መሃሪ ኣኼባታት ድማ ብኩሎም መራሕቲ ሓይልታት ተቓውሞ ክልመድ ከም ዘለዎ ኣኼበኛ ተማሕጺኑ።

Frankfurt Branch Meeting 17092017

ብድሕሪ‘ዚ ድማ ኣብቲ ካልኣይ ኣጀንዳ ተኣትዩ፡ ፈስቲቫልና ናይ 2017 ልክዕ ከምቶም ካልኦት ዝሓለፉ ፈስቲቫላት ሰልፊ ንኩሎም ደለይቲ ፍትሒ ኣሳታፍን፡ መሃርን፡ መቀራረብን ምንባሩን፥ ናይ ሰልፍና ግሉጽነት ናይ ቃልስን ዕላማናን ኣሰራርሓናን ንህዝብና እነቃልሓሉን ብምንባሩ ኣኼበኛ ገምጊሙ። ንዝነበሩ ሕጽረታት ድማ ክንመሃረሎምን እናኣረምናዮም ክንከይድን ተላብዩ።

ኣብ መወዳእታ‘ውን ነቲ ኣበየኩርናዕ ዓለም ክካየድ ዝቐነየ በዓል ሓደ መስከረም ምጅማር ሰውራ ኤርትራ ብምጥቃስን፡ ታሪኽ ኣጀማምራ ሰውራና ድማ ብምትንታንን ኣኼበኛ ተዘራሪቡሉ። እዚ ዓመት መጸ ዝበዓል ዕለት‘ዚ ስርዓት ህግደፍ ንህዝቢ ንምድንጋር ብጓይላን ናይ ምትላል መደረታትን እኳ እንተሕለፉዎ፡ ንዝነበረ ናይ ህዝብና ዕላማን ብጽኑዕን ውፉይን ቃልሲ ዝመጸ ሃገራዊ ነጻነትን ጨውዮም፡ ንህዝቢ ዝኸፍአ ባርነት ከም ዘውረዱሉን፡ ሃገር ኣብ ናይ ህዝባ ቤት ማእሰርቲ ከም ዝተቐየረትን፡ በብተራ እናጠቕሱ ኣኼበኛታት ዘትዮም። ንሕና ደለይቲ ፍትሒ እምበኣር፡ እቲ እነብዕሎ ኣገባብ ኣበዓዕላ ካብቲ ናይ ህግደፋውያን ዝተፈለየ ኮይኑ፡ ነቲ ቀዳማይ ዕማም ሰውራ ህዝቢ ኤርትራ ናይ ሃገራዊ ነጻነት በዓል ብምምጓስን፡ ነቲ ተሪፉ ዘሎ ካልኣይ ዕማም ሓርነታዊ ቃልሲ ህዝብና ንምሕናኑን ንምርግጋጹን ድማ ሓይልና ኣወሃሂድና ነዛ ዕለት እዚኣ ከም መንጠሪ ክንጥቀመላ ከም ዘሎና ኣኼበኛ ኣስሚሩሉ። ኣብ መጠረስታ፣ ጉዳይ ሓተትቲ ዕቑባ ኤርትራውያንን ኣብዚ እዋን ጀርመናውያን ዝኽተልዎ ዘለዉ ኣገባብን ሓደስቲ ውሳኔታቶምን እውን ብሰፊሕ ተሓቢሩን ተዘትይሉን ኣኼባ ኣብ ሰዓቱ ተደምዲሙ።

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