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Eritrea's Foreign Minister Osman Sale, right, is welcomed by Ethiopia's Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed, left, on a visit to to Ethi­o­pia on June 26. Abiy on July 8 paid a visit to Eritrea. (Mulugeta Ayene/AP)

Ethio­pian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed traveled Sunday to Eritrea, once a bitter rival, for an unprecedented summit with its longtime leader, Isaias Afwerki.

State Eritrean television showed an Ethio­pian Airlines plane landing at the sparse airport in the Eritrean capital of Asmara, where a brass band was drawn up to greet the prime minister for the first such visit in two decades.

The two Horn of Africa neighbors have been sworn enemies for the past 20 years since fighting a brutal ground war from 1998 to 2000 that saw at least 70,000 killed. In the intervening years, the two sides have clashed repeatedly and supported rival rebel movements.

Abiy was hugged by Isaias himself at the airport, and they occasionally smiled and laughed together as they strode past the uniformed band and honor guard — a marked contrast to the Eritrean president’s normally stone-faced public appearances.

The two men were welcomed by rows of officials and women in traditional dress waving palm fronds before they retired to the airport VIP lounge, where they sat and sipped juice beneath portraits of themselves.

Before leaving the airport, Abiy waded into the crowd of welcoming women and exchanged hugs.

As the convoy of vehicles carrying Abiy passed through downtown Asmara, crowds lined the street and cheered loudly, spilling into the road and slowing the cars to a crawl.

The change in relations between the two countries has stunned observers. For the first time in decades, Ethio­pian flags adorned the streets of Asmara and other cities in preparation for Abiy’s visit, according to photos tweeted by Natalie Brown, the U.S. chief of mission in Asmara.

The rumored visit was confirmed by Abiy’s chief of staff, Fitsum Arega, on Sunday morning.

“Abiy Ahmed has left to Eritrea, Asmara today to further deepen efforts to bring about lasting peace between the people of Ethiopia & Eritrea,” he tweeted. “Our two nations share a history & bond like no other. We can now overcome two decades of mistrust and move in a new direction.”

Nearly 30 years ago, the future leaders of the two countries were comrades in the struggle against Ethiopia’s communist dictatorship. But after its overthrow and Eritrea’s declaration of independence, relations soured despite close cultural and linguistic ties.

Ethi­o­pia’s new reformist prime minister, Abiy, broke the deadlock between the two countries on June 5 by accepting the 2000 peace agreement that ended the war, which would involve ceding territory still held by Ethi­o­pia.

Events moved quickly after that, with Isaias accepting the overtures as a “positive” move and sending a delegation led by his foreign minister to Addis Ababa a week later. Now there has been talk of reopening long-closed air links between the two countries this year.

The summit will probably involve negotiations on how to begin the complex process of returning territories to each other and separating populations as well as restoring ties.

Under Abiy, Ethi­o­pia appears to be embarking on a new path of reform, but Eritrea has been characterized as one of the most authoritarian states in Africa.

For much of the past 20 years, Eritrea has been focused on its conflict with Ethi­o­pia, with substantial spending on its military and indefinite mandatory military service that has led hundreds of thousands of Eritreans to try to immigrate to Europe.

The meeting “heralds a new era of peace & cooperation,” Eritrean Information Minister Yemane Meskel tweeted Sunday.

In interviews broadcast live on Eritrean state television, people praised the visit and welcomed peace between the two countries.

“Peace is everything,” said an elderly man wearing a turban and sunglasses.


Eritrea and peace with Ethiopia: Four questions

%AM, %06 %396 %2018 %10:%Jul Written by

The leaders of Ethiopia and Eritrea are scheduled to meet soon to discuss reviving relations that have been in deep freeze for decades.

Analysts believe that ending their bitter dispute could be transformative for Eritrea, whose policies have been driven by the deadlock with its neighbour.

Here are four things to know about why the quarrel matters so much to Eritrea — and why ending it could reshape the country.

By Afp

Peace: Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed, left, and Eritrean President Isaias Afwerki have the chance to end a dispute that has poisoned relations for years

Peace: Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed, left, and Eritrean President Isaias Afwerki have the chance to end a dispute that has poisoned relations for years

How important is the dispute to Eritrea?


Eritrea contends — and a United Nations-backed boundary commission agreed in 2002 — that Ethiopia is illegally occupying land along the two countries’ border that belongs to Eritrea.

It was along this frontier that Ethiopia and Eritrea, a former Ethiopian province, went to war, from 1998 to 2000, in a conflict that killed around 80,000 people.

Since the 2000 Algiers agreement ended the war, Eritrea’s president, Isaias Afwerki, has used Ethiopia’s rejection of the subsequent boundary ruling to justify a host of repressive domestic policies.

These include jailing journalists and dissidents, refusing to implement the constitution and running an indefinite military conscription program the UN likens to slavery.

“The country was put on hold for 20 years and everything revolved around [the border dispute],” says Abraham Zere, an exiled journalist and executive director of the literature and rights organisation, PEN Eritrea.

Does Eritrea want rapprochement?

Yes, by all indications.

Ethiopia’s new prime minister Abiy Ahmed made the first move in June by announcing Ethiopia would withdraw from the town of Badme and other disputed border territories, in accordance with the 2002 ruling.

Eritrea responded by sending two top officials to Ethiopia, and later a meeting between Abiy and Isaias was announced, though no details have been given.

“I think it’s fair to say the Eritrean leadership is committed to political rapprochement,” says Michael Woldemariam of Boston University’s Frederick S. Pardee School of Global Studies.

Ethiopia has not withdrawn from the contested areas yet, but doing so will meet a long-stated Eritrean demand.

PEN’s Abraham says the offer was too good for Isaias to refuse, even if by removing the Ethiopian threat he risks increasing domestic pressure for reform.

“He is probably aware that it is the only way out. The peace proposal and engagement from both sides is not an option, but a necessity,” says Abraham.

How would peace benefit Eritrea?


Eritrea and Ethiopia are among Africa’s poorest nations, but while Ethiopia has seen its economy grow by double-digit figures in recent years, Eritrea has stagnated.

Analysts believe normalising ties would benefit both countries.

Eritrean industries could service the growing markets of its much larger and more populous southern neighbour.

The graves of Ethiopian soldiers who died in the fighting with Eritrea are painted in the colors of the Ethiopian flag in the disputed border town of Badme


The graves of Ethiopian soldiers who died in the fighting with Eritrea are painted in the colors of the Ethiopian flag in the disputed border town of Badme

“Eritrea is going to gain a lot, because it will be able to follow Ethiopia’s economic momentum,” says Marc Lavergne of the National Centre for Scientific Research in Paris.

Woldemariam argues settling the dispute with Ethiopia could also spur foreign investors to consider Eritrea free of the fear of incurring Addis Ababa’s wrath.

“It is likely that improving relations between Ethiopia and Eritrea will further solidify the Eritrean state’s rehabilitation on the international scene,” he adds.

Peace could also help resolve Ethiopia’s problem of lack of access to the sea: the country became landlocked after Eritrea, which comprised Ethiopia’s entire coastline, seceded in 1993.

The outbreak of war five years later stopped the flow of Ethiopian goods through Eritrea’s Red Sea ports, but trade and transport could restart if the two countries come to terms.

“The port of Massawa will get a boost and become one of the alternative ports for Ethiopia,” Lavergne says.

Who else is involved?

Nobody, officially.

Last week’s breakthrough meeting between Ethiopia and Eritrea was not brokered by any third party.

However, analysts say policy shifts by the US and Gulf countries towards the two countries and their dispute may have played a role in hastening the diplomatic thaw.

Eritrea has long accused the US of taking sides, blaming Washington for failing to push Ethiopia to abide by the boundary ruling, and for supporting Security Council sanctions against it.

Ethiopia and Eritrea

Woldemariam says the US may have decided it was time to find a new ally after Djibouti, a neighbour of both Ethiopia and Eritrea that also hosts an US troops, allowed the Chinese to open a military base on its land.

“Certainly, because of geopolitical developments in the Red Sea region — China’s presence in Djibouti, in particular — the US has some interest in normalising relations with Eritrea,” Woldemariam points out.

Eritrea has also, in recent years, strengthened ties with Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, which is reported to have opened a military base at Eritrea’s southern port of Assab.

That both are also allies of Ethiopia has led some to see a behind-the-scenes role played by the Gulf.

“These countries have Eritrea on a financial drip. They certainly took part in Isaias’s decision to negotiate,” Lavergne asserts.


Eritrea's president visits Abu Dhabi crown prince

%PM, %05 %484 %2018 %12:%Jul Written by

Eritrea's President Isaias Afwerki has made a rare trip abroad, meeting Abu Dhabi's Crown Prince Sheikh Mohamed Bin Zayed in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).

The UAE operates a military base in Eritrea that it uses for its campaign in Yemen's war and the leaders discussed how to strengthen ties, according to statements from both countries released after Tuesday's meeting.

a man looking at the camera: FILE PHOTO: Eritrea's President Isaias Afwerki listens as he meets with Sudan's President Omar al-Bashir during his official visit in Khartoum © REUTERS/Mohamed Nureldin Abdallah//File Photo FILE PHOTO: Eritrea's President Isaias Afwerki listens as he meets with Sudan's President Omar al-Bashir during his official visit in Khartoum

A new prime minister took office in April in Ethiopia, Eritrea's neighbour, and his reforms have shaken up regional politics.

Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed has announced plans to liberalize the state-dominated economy and pledged to honour the terms of a 2000 peace deal with Eritrea.

Last week, Eritrea and Ethiopia said they had "opened the door of peace" after the first high-level visit from Asmara to Addis Ababa in nearly two decades.

That meeting raised hopes for an end to one of Africa's most intractable military stand-offs.

Ethiopia also has growing ties to UAE, which last month pledged $3 billion in aid and investments.

(Reporting by Alexander Cornwell in Dubai; Writing by Maggie Fick; Editing by Matthew Mpoke Bigg)


The status the USA has in relation to the Algiers Agreement that ended the Ethiopia – Eritrea war (1998 – 2000) may sound like an academic question: it is not.

Michael RaynorIf the US was merely an observer, then it has no formal responsibility to uphold the agreement. If it was a guarantor, then it does. Previously there has been uncertainty about this.

Now Ambassador Mike Raynor has confirmed that America is a guarantor.

In a wide-ranging and interesting interview with the Addis Standard the Ambassador has much to say, including this reply to a question about the role the US will play in supporting the developing reconciliation between Ethiopia and Eritrea:

Well, we have said to both parties, and publicly, and continue to say that we are available to play that role. Back in the day of the Algiers Agreement the United States was formally a guarantor; we had a structural role established at the point that the agreement was made. We have encouraged this outcome for sometime with both governments and in doing so we have said ‘If you collaboratively feel there is a role that the US can constructively play, we’ll do everything we can to support that’. We have not been asked in any form or way to play any sort of role in that process. But if we are, we would look very strongly at doing everything we can to respond favorably.

Ambassador Raynor also added weight to suggestions that the US encouraged talks between Ethiopia and Eritrea for some months, including reports that a meeting was held at the State Department in Washington attended by Eritrean Foreign Minister Osman Saleh and President Isaias’s advisor, Yemane Gebreab. The meeting was reportedly attended by former Ethiopian prime minister, Hailemariam Desalegn and chaired by Donald Yamamoto.

The Ambassador said: “…we’ve had engagements with both countries for a number of months now encouraging this outcome. That predates Prime Minister Abiy, but certainly includes the time and period he came to power.”

Full interview follows


by Martin Plaut

                               Press release         

Addressing criminalisation of refugees and impunity of human trafficking

Brussels, 28 June 2018

As EU leaders are meeting in Brussels to discuss migration, experts denounced current EU migration policy as ineffective in tackling human trafficking and undermining migrant and refugee rights. A public hearing took place in the European Parliament today on the impact of EU external action in the Horn of Africa and addressing the criminalisation of refugees and impunity of human trafficking.

The event was hosted by the GUE/NGL group of Parliamentarians. The speakers emphasised the importance of protection in the region, addressing human trafficking at the highest level and to the source. The experts denounced the cooperation on migration of the EU with governments who are involved in human trafficking. The meeting took place as the European Council met on migration in Brussels.

The meeting was opened by Member of the European Parliament, Marie-Christine Vergiat. “The situation in the Horn of Africa is particularly dramatic.” Ms. Vergiat stated. “The Khartoum process has worsened the situation of migrants in that area of the world and this is particularly true in Sudan and Eritrea.”

Speaker Makeda Saba warned of the consequences of current cooperation programmes with regimes in the Horn of Africa, including those accused of crimes against humanity, such as Eritrea. Currently, there are three international NGOs working in Eritrea, VITA, Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC) and Finn Church Aid (FCA). According to Saba, these organisations do harm by collaborating with the Eritrean regime, accused of committing crimes against humanity, including slave labour.

According to Saba, these NGOs are dependent upon the favour of operating in the country by the highest level of the regime: “These NGOs operate without legal basis or rule of law. They are not able to be independent and impartial. They strengthen the oppressive institutions of the government, including the militarised education system. They cannot operate without using and legitimising forced labour. They are not helping the people of Eritrea”

Sara Prestianni from ARCI Immigrazione spoke about the situation in Sudan and the Khartoum process, stating: “Omar al-Bashir has everything to gain from cooperation with the EU so he can brush up on his image. He is taking ownership of this collaboration to once again play a central role in the international arena. […] The Rapid Support Forces operate to now at the border in Eastern Sudan. Who knows what crimes are being committed?”

Christian Jakob, journalist at the German Tagezeitung, has extensively investigated the effect of the externalisation of Europe’s borders in Africa: “In countries like Eritrea and Sudan, it is very easy for the EU to get what they want because there is no one from civil society who can question it.”

Meron Estefanos, Eritrean-Swedish journalist, covered the situation of human trafficking in Libya, victimising many through human rights abuses, torture and extortion: “Libyan officials are extorting money from people who are intercepted on the sea and sent back. […] Even from within the legal detention, refugees are sold for labour and other illicit purposes.”

Prof. Mirjam van Reisen covered the overall effect of EU policies, communication strategies and the lack of protection for refugees in the region. The policies are irregularising even those that have already integrated or have a legitimate asylum claim.

“The system is irregularising people that we know we previously integrated or are legitimate asylum seekers. […] This is against international law and it is immoral. But most of all, it does not work and cannot work.” Prof. van Reisen continued: “People who have already experienced so much cruelty are chased across the region. Highly traumatised people remain in a mode of fleeing. That really works to the benefit of the human trafficking networks – they thrive on fear.” She argues that human trafficking has to be addressed at the top level: “The big money of human trafficking is made at the top. The top traffickers should be held responsible before anybody else.” She said.

We need to move to a policy where we 1) respect international law, 2) use our resources to create places of protection and care and 3) where we persecute those responsible for human trafficking at the top of the networks.”

Three documentary excerpts showed at the public hearing gave striking images of the tragedy.

The documentary ‘It will be chaos’ showed up close the tragedy for Eritrean refugees at Lampadusa, 2013. Such tragedies still occur frequently in the Mediterranean Sea. The ARTE documentary ‘Türsteher Europas’ covered the situation in the Horn of Africa, where EU cooperation is contributing to unseen deaths in the desert. The final excerpt of the Swedish SVT documentary ‘Hunt for the General’ shows how refugees become victims of action against human trafficking, while the top people continue to be involved with impunity.

Martin Plaut | June 29, 2018 at 7:47 am | Categories: Uncategorized | URL:


by Martin Plaut

Reuters Aaron Maasho

 ADDIS ABABA (Reuters) - Ethiopia’s prime minister will meet the Eritrean president soon as the once-warring nations try to resolve one of Africa’s most intractable military stand-offs, Ethiopian state-affiliated media said, citing the foreign minister.


A high-level Eritrean delegation arrived in the Ethiopian capital city Addis Ababa on Tuesday for the first time since the two countries fought between 1998 and 2000 over their disputed border, with diplomatic relations broken off ever since.

Ethiopian leader Abiy Ahmed said this month he would honor all the terms of a peace deal, suggesting he might be ready to settle the border dispute.

After Tuesday’s meeting, Eritrean Foreign Minister Osman Saleh said the former foes “have opened the door of peace” whilst Abiy said he hoped the dispute would end with this generation and reiterated his willingness to transfer territory.

Eritrean President Isaias Afwerki had welcomed Ethiopia’s “positive messages” earlier this month and decided to send the delegation, which included his adviser Yemane Gebreab and his envoy to the African Union. They returned on Thursday.

The border war between the long-time foes killed some 80,000 people and the sides remain at odds over the status of the frontier town of Badme. The border remains militarized.

Abiy has sent a letter to President Isaias, Ethiopia’s Fana media said, without detailing the content.

Martin Plaut | June 29, 2018 at 8:01 am | Categories: Uncategorized | URL:


by Martin Plaut

Khartoum S Sudan

The president of South Sudan and his former vice president signed a peace deal on Wednesday 27 July in a bid to end their country’s protracted civil war.

The rivals — President Salva Kiir and former Vice President Riek Machar, who leads the largest rebel group fighting the government — met for the first time in two years last week. The civil war has lasted for more than four years and has plunged South Sudan, the world’s youngest country, into a humanitarian crisis.

Despite the agreement, signed in neighboring Sudan, many worry that a lasting resolution to the conflict is still a long way off. Peace deals signed by both leaders have fallen apart in the past, and the war now involves numerous smaller parties. Just two years ago, the pair struck a similar agreement that soon unraveled.

Here is the official document signed by all concerned. Khartoum Declaration

Martin Plaut | 28/06/2018 at 12:58 pm | Tags: Ceasefire, Khartoum Declaration, peace, South Sudan | Categories: Africa, South Sudan | URL:

CIVICUS Oral Statement

Dialogue with UN Special Rapporteur on Eritrea


26 June 2018, Delivered by Niat Hailemariam


Mr President

On behalf of CIVICUS, Reporters without Borders, the Eritrean Movement for Democracy and Human Rights, the Eritrean Law society, Eritrea Focus, and the Horn of Africa Civil Society Forum, I would first like to express our deepfelt gratitude and appreciation to the Special Rapporteur for her unwavering support to Eritrean victims of human rights violations.

Today, her work is all the more important. The latest reports emerging from the country indicate that the human rights situation is not improving. Following the imprisonment and death in detention of respected Muslim elder Haji Musa in March 2018, Eritrean authorities have conducted mass arrests and disappearances of youth.

We are also concerned by the Special Rapporteur’s reports that individuals who dare to exercise their right to freedom of expression have been targeted with arrest and detention, while peaceful demonstrations in October 2017 following the arrest of Haji Musa were met with scores of arrests and night house raids without search or arrest warrants.

Since the publication of the UN Commission of Inquiry’s (COI) report, government officials have continued to torture, imprison, and arbitrarily detain people without notifying them of the reason for their arrest.

Mr President, since the publication of the CoI report, not a single individual has been held accountable for the human rights violations, including crimes against humanity, committed in Eritrea. Civil society remains forced to work outside the country and independent press is still not permitted to operate inside the country. Eritrea remains the largest jailer of journalists in sub-Saharan Africa.

The Eritrean government has repeatedly ignored the Special Rapporteur’s requests for access to conduct investigations.

Mr President, we urge the UN Human Rights Council to renew the Special Rapporteur’s mandate and maintain attention on some of the most egregious human rights violations in sub-Saharan Africa. The Human Rights Council has a responsibility to follow up on the CoI’s serious findings and ensure that accountability for crimes against humanity committed in Eritrea remains a priority.

Thank you, Mr President.

In a response to a question in Parliament from Lord Ahmad, the UK government has said it will act if companies violate laws on Eritrean mines. The question was sparked off by the Eritrea Focus report on Mining and Repression in Eritrea.

Lord Ahmad of Wimbledon, the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, has provided the following answer to your written parliamentary question (HL8640):

To ask Her Majesty’s Government what assessment they have made of the recent report by Eritrea Focus to the All-Party Parliamentary Group on Eritrea, Mining & Repression in Eritrea: corporate complicity in human rights abuses, and its implications for Government policy. (HL8640)

Tabled on: 14 June 2018

Lord Ahmad of Wimbledon:

​The Government has received the recent report by Eritrea Focus. Eritrea remains a human rights priority country under the Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) Annual Human Rights Report. The FCO and the British Embassy in Asmara regularly engages with UK companies, and companies with UK investment, involved in the extractive sector in Eritrea. Discussions include their duty to comply with the legislative and regulatory requirements of operating in Eritrea, and the human rights of Eritrean nationals involved in their operations in Eritrea.

The British Government will take appropriate action against companies and/or individuals who fail to comply with the relevant legislation.

Date and time of answer: 25 Jun 2018 at 16:47.


Source: Star Vancouver


By Perrin GrauerStarMetro Vancouver

Mon., June 25, 2018

VANCOUVER — An upcoming decision from Canada’s top court on whether allegations of human rights abuses filed against a Vancouver mining company will go to trial in Canada could set a groundbreaking precedent, according to a human rights watchdog.

Four plaintiffs, all Eritrean refugees, allege the mining company — called Nevsun Resources Ltd. — is complicit in violations of international law norms against forced labour, slavery and torturestemming from the construction of an Eritrean mine. Sixty per cent of the venture is owned by Nevsun through subsidiaries, while the remainder is owned by Eritrean state companies.

Nevsun has wholly denied all allegations of human rights abuses at the Bisha gold mine, and argued Eritrean courts would be the appropriate place — known in legal terms as a “forum conveniens” — for the case to be heard.

The Supreme Court’s decision could have a significant impact on how Canadian companies operate overseas, said Karyn Keenan, director of Above Ground, a group that works to ensure that companies based in Canada or supported by the Canadian state respect human rights wherever they operate.

“It could be hugely precedent-setting,” Keenan said in an interview, adding, “or it could be not.”

Because the alleged violations occurred abroad, said Keenan, a decision in favour of the plaintiffs could go two ways.

The SCOC could decide that international plaintiffs can hold Canadian companies accountable in Canadian courts only when violations occur in countries where plaintiffs have little or no access to justice because of corruption or violence.

Or it could decide Canadian companies should be accountable to the Canadian justice system regardless of the situation in the country where its operation is located.

“It opens the window a little bit, or it opens it a lot,” she said, adding the fundamental question is “is it a legitimate thing to (bring suit against a company) to the courts in a country where the parent company is based?”

Canadian companies, like Nevsun, she said, raise capital in Canada and are incorporated under Canadian law. But they set up corporate structures through subsidiaries in other countries, which allows them to avoid legal responsibility in Canada, since subsidiaries are separate legal entities.

“It’s been very difficult legally and practically to bring things back to Canada where the parent company is,” she said. “Since (Canada) really is where the centre of corporate activity, responsibility and decision-making is, it seems appropriate for people who are harmed by that whole corporate body … to bring it back to Canada.”

Nevsun did not respond to a request for interview.

Eritrea’s National Policy Proclamation obliges Eritrean citizens to serve 18 months of compulsory military or government service. And while the Eritrean government denies this conscription is the same as forced labour, a report from Amnesty Internationalfound “use of conscript labour in mining and construction plants owned by private companies, as well as the indefinite nature of national service, amounts to forced labour.”

And according to the United Nations Commission of Inquiry on Eritrea, many national service conscripts lack adequate food, water, hygienic facilities, accommodation and medical services.

Keenan said companies often argue laws governing the ability of Canadian courts to weigh in on the international conduct of national companies might open the door for what is known as “forum shopping.” This is when plaintiffs from foreign countries shop around for a judiciary in a country they feel offers them the best hope of winning their case.

But in situations where human rights are at stake, she said, forum shopping actually makes a lot of sense.

“If you’re taking on a multinational corporation and you’re suing them, and you’re willing to assume all the emotional and the practical and the financial risks and costs that go with that, you’ve thought this out,” she said.

“So, of course you’re assessing where you have the best chance of succeeding, and of course you’re assessing what kinds of repercussions there will be for you depending on the forum.”

Looking at the question from a different angle, said Keenan, one might ask: Is it legitimate for non-Canadians who claim to have been harmed by a Canadian corporate entity to want access to a process to hold that entity accountable?

“I think the answer for me, overwhelmingly is yes,” she said. “In the vast majority of these cases, the (human) risks are foreseeable. … You knew what you were doing. You’re responsible. You went in with your eyes open. And you should be held to account.”

Read more:

Vancouver-based mining company granted Supreme Court appeal in ‘conscripted labour’ case

Canada’s international mining industry may not be living up to human rights commitments, experts say

Slave labour used to build Canadian company’s Eritrean mine: Report

Martin Plaut | June 26, 2018 at 7:00 am | Tags: Canada, Eritrea, Nevsun | Categories: News | URL: